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Outline the various forms of the cosmological argument for the existence of God

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A1 Outline the various forms of the cosmological argument for the existence of God The cosmological argument is a well established argument for the existence of God and it is also known as the first cause argument. The cosmological argument is based upon the belief that there is a first cause behind the existence of universe and this was God. It has taken many forms and in the past has been presented in many ways. So many philosophers have put their points across, philosophers like; Plato, Aquinas, Socrates, Hume, Kant and many more. The first person to put their point across was Plato. He argued that the power to produce the movements plausibly comes before the power to receive it and pass it on. In order for the movement to occur in the first place, there must be an uncaused cause to instigate the movement. He said this was the 'First Cause' or 'First Mover'. The most popular version was developed by the infamous St Thomas Aquinas; he developed the five ways to prove the existence of God. The first three of his five ways act as a proof to god's existence. The ways are motion, cause and contingency. The first way is based upon motion. According to Aquinas there must have been a first or a mover, which itself was unmoved. The Unmoved mover began the movement in everything without actually being moved. ...read more.


If the universe was created out of nothing then the beginning of the universe was the beginning of time. Many objections in the past and currently have been raised against the cosmological argument. One of the major objections to the argument is the submission that infinity is impossible and that the universe had a beginning. Many philosophers - past and present, point out that Aquinas and Craig contradict themselves when they reject the possibility of the infinite. Both Aquinas and Craig deny the infinite and yet argue that God is infinite. Believers of the argument point out that God is unique and that the laws of nature do not apply to God. In the five ways Anthony Kenny said that Aquinas's principle that nothing moves itself goes against the fact that people and animals move themselves. He stated that Newton's first law of motion, in which movement can be explained by a body's own sluggishness from previous motion, disapproves Aquinas's argument. It is possible for object to have uniform motion as well as to be in a state of rest. b) The strengths of the Cosmological Argument lie in both its simplicity and easily comprehensible concept that there cannot be an infinite number of causes to an event. Some arguments for God's existence require more thought and training in terms and concepts, but this argument is basic and simple. ...read more.


Such a question may be beyond reach of science and shows the point at which philosophy must take over. Effectively it labels the explanation for the existence of the Big Bang as 'God'. Conclusion: Like the teleological argument, the cosmological argument suffers from our uncertainty of whether or not the past, like the future, is infinite. If the past stretches back infinitely, then there never was a Prime Cause. If there have been an infinite number of causes in the past then logically there cannot have been a first cause. The argument, by itself, only seems to show the existence of a necessary being which is the cause of the universe. While this does include some key elements of the theistic conception of God, it obviously leaves out quite a few important ones. The conclusion is compatible with many views of God. So, even if it is successful, the cosmological argument hardly constitutes more than an entering wedge into the knowledge of God. If someone accepts the conclusion, the proper attitude for him to adopt is surely a desire to learn more about God. Brian Davies takes the position that the cosmological argument cannot stand alone as proof for the existence of God, and would have to be supported by other evidence. Immanuel Kant rejected the cosmological argument based on his theory that reason is too limited to know anything beyond human experience. However, he did argue that religion could be established as presupposed by the workings of morality in the human mind ("practical reason"). ...read more.

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