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Music and art play main parts in the worship and spiritual life of all devout Hindus. Sound (Nada) also known in Hinduism as Nada is believed to be the centre of the process of creation. In Hinduism it is believed that the sacred symbol 'Om' embodies the essence of the Universe, and it is through the sound, Om, the primary energy holds the material world (which is Maya) together which is believed to prevent Hindus from reaching Moksha (were the Atman (soul) is released from its Vessel (body) and joins Brahman on a higher plain of existence). Nada Brahman is a primary word in Hindu spirituality, a word that also refers to India's great classical music.
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As some people also find it hard to concentrate at home, the Mandir can help them focus on worship as everyone else is also worshipping so they can concentrate easier than at home where they could be distracted. There are three different forms of worship. This includes: * Havan * Arti * Bhajan Havan involves offering small offerings/sacrifices to the Gods/Goddesses. A small fire will be lit by the priest in front of the Murti using wood and ghee. Passages of the Vedas are read while wood and ghee are added to keep the fire burning.
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More importantly it could have avoided the partition of the country. People at the time lost respect for the British and were desperate to be free from their grip, Gandhi seemed like their only hope, we can see this from what a famous Indian writer and historian had to say: "Europe has completely lost her former moral prestige in Asia. She is no longer regarded as the champion throughout the world of fair dealing and the exponent of high principle, but as the up holder of Western race supremacy and the exploiter of those outside her borders" -Rabindranath Tagore.
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The mandir is a special place for the encounter between the worshipper and the divine. They are not usually used as a meeting place for a congregation but are mainly used for individual worship or for small groups. The Hindu temple is a symbol of the universe and the different deigns and plans correspond to the different regions of the earth, sky and homes of the various gods. The basic shape of the mandir is meant to be in the shape of a mountain to provide an elegant and splendid place for the gods and goddesses to dwell.
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To what extent were propaganda and national pride as important as religion in the design, construction and decoration of the Parthenon?
Some of the states in Greece joined together in a league to sustain a navy that could protect them from more attacks from the Persians. The money given by each of the states was kept at a treasury in Delos, the Greeks then referred to the band of states as the Delian League. Eventually, it became obvious that Athens would be the leaders of the league and so the money was transferred to Athens. After rebuilding and fortifying the city, the Athenians made peace with Persia in 449BC.
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There is one message, the message of Ahimsa. Ahimsa is a supreme duty of man. Ahimsa, or refraining from causing pain to any living creature, is a distinctive quality emphasized by Indian ethics. Ahimsa or non-violence has been the central doctrine of Indian culture from the earliest days of its history. Ahimsa is a great spiritual force. Benefits of the practice of Ahimsa If you are established in Ahimsa, you have attained all virtues. Ahimsa is the pivot and all virtues revolve around Ahimsa. Just as all footprints are accommodated in those of the elephant, so also do all religious rules become merged in the great vow of Ahimsa.
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Vishnu is said to be young compared to the other gods and blue in colour. He is depicted as having four hands holding a lotus, symbolising purity, mace, a conch shell to blow and a discus as a weapon. Vishnu is married to the goddesses Sri and Laksmi who were initially individuals but eventually merged into one being. Vishnu has a curl of hair on his chest given to him by his wife Sri to show her devotion and in this particular depiction, is seen wearing the jewel kaustubha which arose from the ocean of milk after being churned up.
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Another magnificent city is that of Puri. Here, the Jagannatha temple holds a festival in June or July. This festival is a procession dedicated to a form of the god Vishnu. One of the most famous pilgrimages is at Hardwar, the Kumbha-mela. The Kumbha-mela is a sacred event, which takes place every twelve years. This holy place is where Hindus take a ritual bath, and up to 100,000 people bathe there to wash away impurities in their lives. The city of Dwarka is also an important pilgrimage site.
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Another reason why Hindus are encouraged to marry is because some religious rituals can only be carried out if you are married. A quote from a book called Hinduism: A New Approach reinforces this idea: 'No religious ritual can be performed by a man without his wife, and no man or woman's life is seen as complete without marriage.' Also included in the samskaras are four ashramas, which follow the cycle of growing up, adulthood and getting old, and are Brahnacharyi (student), Grihasta (householder), Vanaprastha (retirement)
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Doric temples have a capital (the top) made of a circle topped by a square. The shaft (the tall part of the column) is plain and has twenty sides. The Doric order is very simple but yet very powerful in its design. The Doric order like many other Greek designs works very well horizontally, so it fits perfectly with the Greek designs (all Greek architects tried to design correctly symmetrical buildings). Doric, columns normally six in width and thirteen in length have no base, they rest on the floor of the temple and the base and the capital are carved from a single piece of stone, while the drum is composed of drum sections.
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How does Anita Desai exploit language in "A Village by the Sea" to give us an insight into Indian tradition and culture as reflected through the life of the people in Thul?
Tradition is the main aspect focused on in Anita Desai's book. The book revolves around poverty stricken people and people who face hardships and difficulties from day to day. Anita Desai uses vivid imagery for the readers to visualize the lives of people in these rural villages such as Thul. The setting of the home immediately enforces the idea of poverty onto the readers. "The hut should have been re-thatched years ago- the earthen walls were crumbling, the windows gaped without any shutters.
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Hindus believe that Brahman is present in the soul (Atman). Hindus say that your soul never dies, but your body does as it just a cover for the soul. Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is the re birth of your atman but in a different form or shape. The atman within ones self is explained in many different ways in the Upanishads. The Chandogya Upanishad 6:3-18, explains the link between Atman and Brahmin. Svetaketu's father requested of him to bring him a fig.
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To what extent were the builders of the Erechtheion successful in solving the problems caused by the site and position of the temple?
Throughout this essay references to the mythological and historical facts of the Erechtheion will also be emphasised as well as the aesthetical successes of the Erechtheion. In order to conclude whether the builders of the Erechtheion were successful, one needs to briefly highlight the problems, to allow the reader a full understanding of the Erechtheion uniqueness. The Erechtheion lies at the north of the Akropolis, geologically the builders of the Erechtheion faced a nightmare. As one observes the Erechtheion it is apparent that this temple incorporates two different levels, this is probably the main problem that faced the arithects.
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This means that the most important duty is also lead by the priest. We could see that the priest in the temple is respected and plays an important role in a Hindu mandir. Every temple has a priest no matter if it's a large or small temple, it would be taken care by a priest. In small villages the priest in the temple will be a part time and a non-Brahmin, however in the large temples they will have a full-time staff of Brahmins. The priest's task is to help those who come to worship and to act as a conciliator, which means to be like a middle person because between the worshipper and the god represented by the image.
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According to Pausanias, Iktinos was commissioned from Athens to design the temple. As Phigaleia was a poor state, bringing a world class architect to build their temple would have shown how much they wanted this temple to built and that only the best should build it, in honour of Apollo. If this account is true, then the state's devotion to Apollo is remarkable. This must have been incredibly expensive. We know that the state was poor from accounts by later historians such as Pausanias, but we also know that they were poor from the size of the temple.
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Facilities have also been provided for the devotees for washing their feet. The shrines are at the end of the large hall where the congregation gathers for worship. The worshippers sit on the carpet on the floor, below the level of the shrines. The symmetrical and rectangular prayer hall is well lighted, painted in pink and ventilated by several large and small windows as well as fans. All these windows have been ornamented with circular arches. The temple opens for everyone at 8 until 12 at noon for lunch, its re opened at 4 then closed at 8.
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However they are all oblivious to their filthy surroundings, just content to be near the Ganges. On the far side of the riverbank I can see a funeral taking place. A burning corpse crowded by loved ones. A couple of metres down, a frail young woman stands alone on a rock, a copper urn in her hands. Her white sari blowing poignantly in the gentle breeze, she turns it over and the ashes fly free, scattering about like confetti. The woman slumps down onto the rock and grieves for her lost one. From the size of her urn, I'm guessing it was her child.
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