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GCSE: Hinduism

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  1. Compare and contrast the iconography and mythology of at least two major Hindu deities.

    Vishnu is said to be young compared to the other gods and blue in colour. He is depicted as having four hands holding a lotus, symbolising purity, mace, a conch shell to blow and a discus as a weapon. Vishnu is married to the goddesses Sri and Laksmi who were initially individuals but eventually merged into one being. Vishnu has a curl of hair on his chest given to him by his wife Sri to show her devotion and in this particular depiction, is seen wearing the jewel kaustubha which arose from the ocean of milk after being churned up.

    • Word count: 2126
  2. Attacks on religious minotirties in Bangaladesh

    2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice. 3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamentals rights and freedom of others. 4. the parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

    • Word count: 4821
  3. Hinduism Pilgrimage.

    Another magnificent city is that of Puri. Here, the Jagannatha temple holds a festival in June or July. This festival is a procession dedicated to a form of the god Vishnu. One of the most famous pilgrimages is at Hardwar, the Kumbha-mela. The Kumbha-mela is a sacred event, which takes place every twelve years. This holy place is where Hindus take a ritual bath, and up to 100,000 people bathe there to wash away impurities in their lives. The city of Dwarka is also an important pilgrimage site.

    • Word count: 2077
  4. The Fight For Indian Independence.

    At that time it was illegal to make salt without having a permit (a rule made by the British) so Gandhi and a lot of his followers marched many a mile to got to a river and make salt. The British ordered their soldiers to attack Gandhi and his followers. The press who were at the march made news reports saying that the British are cruel and shouldn't rule India. This is what Gandhi had tried to achieve. This made the British look bad all over the world.

    • Word count: 893
  5. Hinduism and the environment.

    At the end of this project I will include a glossary which will contain many key words to do with Hinduism, Animal rights and Environmental issues and their meanings. 83 percent of the Indian population are Hindus, which means that almost 700 million people who live in India are Hindu. However, because poverty is so abundant in India, many Hindus don't consider many environmental issues that are considered in the West to be important. For example, many Hindu do not care much if supermarkets are using and wasting too much packaging for their product.

    • Word count: 1549
  6. Hinduism and Islam on human relationships.

    Another reason why Hindus are encouraged to marry is because some religious rituals can only be carried out if you are married. A quote from a book called Hinduism: A New Approach reinforces this idea: 'No religious ritual can be performed by a man without his wife, and no man or woman's life is seen as complete without marriage.' Also included in the samskaras are four ashramas, which follow the cycle of growing up, adulthood and getting old, and are Brahnacharyi (student), Grihasta (householder), Vanaprastha (retirement)

    • Word count: 2284
  7. When Pakistan was born and became an independent country.

    3.3 million Hindus fled East Pakistan, 1.3 million Muslims fled from India into East Pakistan. Meaning lots of people were immigrating and emigrating, this caused a huge rush on trains from Pakistan to India visa versa. The partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 resulted in the greatest migration of people in history. In the fall of that year, 12 million people became refugees as Muslims in India fled to Pakistan, and Hindus in Pakistan fled to India. (See refugees packed on a train on this poster right.) Many people crossed the border illegally but it was very hard to catch them out of the millions that crossed the border that month.

    • Word count: 727
  8. Is the Parthenon a Typical Doric Temple?

    Doric temples have a capital (the top) made of a circle topped by a square. The shaft (the tall part of the column) is plain and has twenty sides. The Doric order is very simple but yet very powerful in its design. The Doric order like many other Greek designs works very well horizontally, so it fits perfectly with the Greek designs (all Greek architects tried to design correctly symmetrical buildings). Doric, columns normally six in width and thirteen in length have no base, they rest on the floor of the temple and the base and the capital are carved from a single piece of stone, while the drum is composed of drum sections.

    • Word count: 2662
  9. What is Jainism?

    and Shravika (laywoman) this community being the oldest continually surviving monastic community in the world. The ultimate objective of Mahavirs teachings is how one can obtain the permanent state of ones self-Nirvana/Moksha - absolute freedom; he taught the idea of supremacy of human life and stressed the importance of the positive attitude of life. He preached that the right knowledge, the right conduct and the right faith will help attain ones liberation, the centre point of the correct conduct lies in the 5 vows Jains must take: Non-violence, truth, chastity, non-acquisition and no stealing. These vows are the way of life for practicing Jains.

    • Word count: 1290
  10. How does Anita Desai exploit language in "A Village by the Sea" to give us an insight into Indian tradition and culture as reflected through the life of the people in Thul?

    Tradition is the main aspect focused on in Anita Desai's book. The book revolves around poverty stricken people and people who face hardships and difficulties from day to day. Anita Desai uses vivid imagery for the readers to visualize the lives of people in these rural villages such as Thul. The setting of the home immediately enforces the idea of poverty onto the readers. "The hut should have been re-thatched years ago- the earthen walls were crumbling, the windows gaped without any shutters.

    • Word count: 2728
  11. What Is Hinduism?

    They may worship the same gods, but they do not share the same beliefs. Ancient Persians first used the name Hindu over 2000 years ago to describe the people living near the River Indus in North India. Modern day Hindus prefer Sanatan Dharma to describe their religion. It means the eternal way of conduct. There are about 700 million Hindus in the world. Most live in India but also other countries including the U.K were around 360,000 Hindus live.

    • Word count: 352
  12. Select and explain the important aspects of a Buddhist Temple.

    A temple is made up of a few different buildings. Firstly there is the temple itself. This is a very ornate building where the Buddhists will meditate, pray and worship. Secondly is the building that the monks live in. There is also in some Temples a "meeting" building where the monks will welcome visitors. These buildings are usually named after a bodhisattva or some other strong influencing spirit in the Buddhist religion. Leading up to the temple, there are usually steps. These steps will be surrounded by incense sticks. I visited a Buddhist temple in Wimbledon, London, and these incense sticks were five foot high.

    • Word count: 550
  13. Describe Hindu belief in respect for all living creatures.

    Hindus believe that Brahman is present in the soul (Atman). Hindus say that your soul never dies, but your body does as it just a cover for the soul. Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is the re birth of your atman but in a different form or shape. The atman within ones self is explained in many different ways in the Upanishads. The Chandogya Upanishad 6:3-18, explains the link between Atman and Brahmin. Svetaketu's father requested of him to bring him a fig.

    • Word count: 2664
  14. Describe a visit to a Hindu place of pilgrimage, explaining its importance to believers.

    There is another version of the story about the river Ganges from the Ramayana, the epic poem about Rama, tells how the holy Ganges came to earth. Initially, the Ganges flowed in heaven. King Sagara had lost sixty thousands of his sons in the hell because of the wrath of a wise man, Kapila, whom he had insulted. Sagara tried to bring down the Ganges to the earth and then to hell, to revive his sons but he couldn't succeed.

    • Word count: 5121
  15. To what extent were the builders of the Erechtheion successful in solving the problems caused by the site and position of the temple?

    Throughout this essay references to the mythological and historical facts of the Erechtheion will also be emphasised as well as the aesthetical successes of the Erechtheion. In order to conclude whether the builders of the Erechtheion were successful, one needs to briefly highlight the problems, to allow the reader a full understanding of the Erechtheion uniqueness. The Erechtheion lies at the north of the Akropolis, geologically the builders of the Erechtheion faced a nightmare. As one observes the Erechtheion it is apparent that this temple incorporates two different levels, this is probably the main problem that faced the arithects.

    • Word count: 2674
  16. A place of Hindu worship.

    This means that the most important duty is also lead by the priest. We could see that the priest in the temple is respected and plays an important role in a Hindu mandir. Every temple has a priest no matter if it's a large or small temple, it would be taken care by a priest. In small villages the priest in the temple will be a part time and a non-Brahmin, however in the large temples they will have a full-time staff of Brahmins. The priest's task is to help those who come to worship and to act as a conciliator, which means to be like a middle person because between the worshipper and the god represented by the image.

    • Word count: 2060
  17. In the opinion of the house honesty takes you further than hypocrisy.

    Hypocrisy is what keeps you on your feet in the present world. Take George Bush for example. As president of the United states he is one of the most powerful men in the world today but yet he is claimed to be one of the biggest hypocrites. Dec 13th,2001- Headlines in the Hindu - ' Pakistani militants attack Indian Parliament ' Dec 14th ,2001- Headlines in the Hindu- 'President Bush condemns attacks and says that Pakistan should back their words with actions' Exactly 10 days later while flipping through the Hindu I see the headlines.

    • Word count: 854
  18. What do shivars believe about Shiva?

    He is also known to be the lord of the dance to all Hindus. But to most Hindus only his dance of destruction is recognised. However to his foll9owers he has many different dance creation preserving and destruction. And also his followers believe in only Shiva and believe Shiva is the one true god. He is also normally seen with his third all knowing and powerful eye. Also he seen with seven locks of hair for when the ganders followed through his hair to form the seven rivers of the ganders #. He is also seen in the himmaylars mediating.

    • Word count: 1646
  19. The Hindu marriage ceremony consists of several steps.

    The main three are- Pre marriage- Mahendi and Peethi The marriage ceremony (wedding) Post marriage ceremonies A day before the wedding the palm and feet of the bride are decorated with "Mahendi". A canopy or mandapa decorated with flowers is erected at the place of wedding. On the wedding morning, various ablutionary rituals are performed on both the bride and the groom in their own homes.

    • Word count: 347
  20. Social Structures - Sacred space.

    It may have a small statue of Krishna or a picture of Shiva or Durga. If the householder has a guru, a photo of the guru will appear, to remind the worshipper of the guru's teachings. This shrine will be the focus of household puja, (worship). Offerings of food or drink may be laid before the statues, and prayers may be said. Hindus also believe that rivers are sacred due to their idea of the river is meant to have purifying and healing powers. An ideal resting place after death and cremation is in water.

    • Word count: 913
  21. Why is the Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassae an interesting building?

    According to Pausanias, Iktinos was commissioned from Athens to design the temple. As Phigaleia was a poor state, bringing a world class architect to build their temple would have shown how much they wanted this temple to built and that only the best should build it, in honour of Apollo. If this account is true, then the state's devotion to Apollo is remarkable. This must have been incredibly expensive. We know that the state was poor from accounts by later historians such as Pausanias, but we also know that they were poor from the size of the temple.

    • Word count: 2305
  22. A Place of Hindu Worship - Describe the main features of a specific place of Hindu worship.

    Facilities have also been provided for the devotees for washing their feet. The shrines are at the end of the large hall where the congregation gathers for worship. The worshippers sit on the carpet on the floor, below the level of the shrines. The symmetrical and rectangular prayer hall is well lighted, painted in pink and ventilated by several large and small windows as well as fans. All these windows have been ornamented with circular arches. The temple opens for everyone at 8 until 12 at noon for lunch, its re opened at 4 then closed at 8.

    • Word count: 2096
  23. A Hindu Marriage Ceremony.

    Each family has its own priest who builds a sacred fire. A priest leads the ceremony. He prepares for the Havan by lighting the ritual fire and reciting hymns calling on the gods to bless the occasion. When the groom arrives he is garlanded with flowers. The couple are seated by the sacred fire. In the past there would have been a veil between the couple until they were married as they would not of known each other. Then the couple will have met but often the bride and groom partly cover their faces.

    • Word count: 580
  24. Descriptive Writing

    As we enter the small village of Ramappa, the stately palm trees standing tall on either side of the small dusty road seem to give us a grand welcome. Ramappa is surrounded by emerald green hills covered by a variety of trees from coconut and tamarind, to mangoes, neem and teak. With the lake as a water source, there are many paddy fields dressed in shimmering green, row upon row, seeming to welcome the rising sun. As we drive slowly towards the tourist bungalow (where we plan to stay for the night), we notice an island nestled on the middle of a placid, blue lake, at a safe distance from intruders, but close enough to spark our imaginations.

    • Word count: 738
  25. Describe a visit to a Hindu place of pilgrimage, explaining its importance to believers.

    However they are all oblivious to their filthy surroundings, just content to be near the Ganges. On the far side of the riverbank I can see a funeral taking place. A burning corpse crowded by loved ones. A couple of metres down, a frail young woman stands alone on a rock, a copper urn in her hands. Her white sari blowing poignantly in the gentle breeze, she turns it over and the ashes fly free, scattering about like confetti. The woman slumps down onto the rock and grieves for her lost one. From the size of her urn, I'm guessing it was her child.

    • Word count: 2292

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