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GCSE: Morality of War

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  1. What is 'intimate violence'? How do different theorists attempt to explain it?

    One in three reported violence from their partners (reference a website for statistics). It is evident that women from all over the world are experiencing domestic violence but why do women experience such abuse from their partner? The issue domestic violence has a range of definitions, the sociologists Kelly defines sexual violence as 'Any physical, visual or sexual act that is experienced by a woman or girl, at the time or later, as a threat, invasion or assault, that has the effect of hurting her or degrading her and/or takes away her ability to control intimate contact' (1988:41).

    • Word count: 2109
  2. Barrington Dyer and develops the inception of this report, its thesis, and motivation as well as examining U.S. policy regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    Induction into this elite class requires only one of two conditions be met; the capability of inflicting a high order of destruction and/or the ability to eradicate large numbers of people. Prior to the invention of the nuclear bomb the only weapons that met these criteria were Biological and Chemical. The introduction of the atomic bomb and its subsidiaries added the Nuclear weapons category and, soon after, the offshoot category of Radiological devices, bringing the number of categories of weapons to bear the title of Weapons of Mass Destruction to a total of four.

    • Word count: 3095
  3. Describe the persecution of the Christians in Rome by Nero.

    It lasted for nine days and destroyed a considerable area of the city. Originally there were fourteen religions in Rome; only four remained after the fire, they had been totally annihilated. Because of Rome's position as the centre of the western world the consequences of the fire travelled a very long way. Nero was worried that he would be blamed for the fire. The Roman people did blame Nero for the fire, they accused him of destroying Rome so that he could build a new capital and name it after himself. He was an easy scapegoat; Nero was hated in the empire.

    • Word count: 672
  4. "For a Christian to die for his/her beliefs does not make sense. It is better to live for them. "Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing you have thought of more than one point of view.

    Oscar Romero is an example of a Christian who died for his faith, just as Jesus died for us. He was the Archbishop of El Salvador, a country torn apart by social injustice; the poor suffered and had no voice. He demanded explanations from the government and tried to raise awareness to the struggle of the poor. He was assassinated while saying Sunday Mass. He showed his support for the poor through his famous speeches and said: "If they kill me, I will rise again in the Salvadoran people." This shows that his death did not end the struggle of the poor, in fact it made them more determined to fight for justice.

    • Word count: 657
  5. Is there such thing as'violence aesthetic'? If so does it justify the increased violence of modern films?

    Violence aesthetic is a justification of the violence displayed in films. The argument is that violence aesthetic films are artistic and beautiful to watch therefore the violence is not there to corrupt its audience but to provide a work of art. Violence is also seen as essential in order to add realism to the film and its genre. For example Reservoir Dogs is a gangster film therefore will most certainly contain violence to add to the verisimilitude of the film.

    • Word count: 1552
  6. Explain what Christians believe about their responsibility for other people.

    Christians can look at what Jesus and what fellow Christians around the world have done for people less fortunate than themselves and feel responsible and show love towards them. The story of Blind Bartimaeus is a good example of this. He was an outcast of society but yet Jesus healed him of his sins becaue he showed he had good faith. This sets an example to modern day Christians who when now face a problem think "What would Jesus do here?"

    • Word count: 870
  7. Explain the arguments put forward by Christians pacifists and demonstrate how Christian non-pacifists might support their position.

    Another view is that of the present archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. In 2002 he used his Christmas message to urge the government to pull back from the brink of war. In his statement he attacked the government over its readiness to launch a military attack on Iraq. He warned the world that even "wise men" could "wreak havoc and suffering". He compared strategists to the three wise men who told king Herod about the birth of Jesus on their way to Bethlehem, prompting a massacre of children.

    • Word count: 1008
  8. Examine the arguments for and against Britain going to war to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction.

    This kind of weapon, with a potential to kill millions of people, should not be used under any circumstances. Many countries have them in their ownership but both Tony Blair and George Bush do not have enough trust in Iraq to believe that they do not have these kinds of weapons already and that they are not trying to produce them at this precise moment. If Iraq did have access to such weapons who can tell whether, through Saddam's hate for the West, he could attack us with the most destructive and sophisticated weaponry in the world. Although, there is even less evidence that Hussein provides any real threat to the U.S and UK even if he had them,

    • Word count: 1351
  9. "In order to find out how things really are, one must understand the filters through which one perceives the world" Discuss and evaluate this claim.

    From this, different people had different views on understanding the situation. Mohammed Aldouri, Iraqi Ambassador to the U.S said "We have no such weapons at all, no chemical weapons, no biological weapons".1 When a person looks at this from one angle, they may perceive that this is true, as it is coming from someone who is an ambassador to the U.S, and obviously, a person of such high calibre would be unlikely to make something up like this. However, Tony Blair, British Prime Minister said "The threat from Saddam Hussein and weapons of mass destruction, chemical, biological, potentially nuclear weapons

    • Word count: 1294
  10. Persecution.

    During his ministry, Jesus was victim to people with these types of mind-sets. Jesus maintained that he spoke with authority from God. The religious leaders of Palestine did not like this because he was making the information freely available to people they felt did not deserve to know the scriptures because they thought of them as unlettered, stupid etc. but Jesus paid them no heed. The religious leaders were infuriated at his flagrant disregard and on occasion tried to kill him.

    • Word count: 1803
  11. Explain the beliefs Christians hold about their responsibility for those at the beginning and end of their lives?

    There are many examples in the bible about Jesus treating everyone equally. Jesus healed all sorts of people and gave everyone a chance, the classic example of this was Mary Magdalene, who was a prostitute and later on became very close to Jesus. Other people may have hated those who Jesus had given a chance but he saw them all as equal. In Luke 7:1-10 a Roman officer whose servant was sick and dying, sent Jewish elders to call Jesus to come and heal his servant.

    • Word count: 1893
  12. Explain why religious people may have problems with transplant surgery.

    now represent one in five of all kidney transplants, A further 2,297 people had their sight restored through a cornea transplant, there was a 52% increase in non-heart beating donation meant that more people than ever received a transplant from these donors, more than 1.2 million people added their names to the NHS Organ Donor Register this was the biggest increase for three years. This practice causes ethical dilemma or problems for some people, particularly those who belong to a religion because some believe it is acceptable, some believe it is wrong and others believe it is acceptable depending on whether the donor is the same religion.

    • Word count: 1101
  13. Domestic violence is a complex issue, which affects the whole of society.

    Women were seen in terms of a dichotomy of the 'deserving' and 'undeserving' in relation to domestic violence. Women whose behaviour was seen as uncontrollable because they had had an affair, did not keep a good home or got drunk were seen as deserving of the violence they suffered. Many believe that if women were caring, nurturing and sensitive to the needs of their men then violence would not occur. Dallos & McLaughlin (1994) argued that this ideology was all well and good, for the middle classes however working class women were often faced with poverty, squalor and drunkenness from

    • Word count: 4827
  14. Outline the key explanations of family violence.

    One of these changes is the increasing lone parent family now existing more than ever in British society, giving argument to Murdock's apparent universal family consisting of two adults of both sexes. However, it has to be acknowledged that although lone parent families are apparent it is often a temporary state, many lone parents go on to find another partner and often return to living in form of the nuclear family. However, Bernardes (1997) argues that while the idea of the nuclear family is apparent in that it is possible we all experience it at sometime or another, experiences are not similar because families in Britain are so diverse.

    • Word count: 3387
  15. Gandhi’s non–Violence Peace Protests – Is This the right way to fight against evil?

    Gandhi still refused to fight back (physically) because Gandhi believed in a Christian teaching, which was 'If a man hits you on the right cheek, let him hit you on the left cheek'. What this means is that no matter how much someone encourages you to fight back (physically), you will refuse to fight back. Even when Gandhi was beaten to the floor, he still continued to burn the passes as he received more beets from the policeman. This showed that Gandhi would stand for what he believed in until he was down to his last ounce of strength.

    • Word count: 989
  16. What are the characteristic features of Reliabilism, and how reliable is it?

    I shall outline the main concept of the theory and then analyse its reliability. The notion that reliability played the central role in the analysis of knowledge and justified belief was first proposed by Frank Ramsey (1929). Reasoning that justification and reliability are naturally connected, Ramsey suggested that in order for one to assume a belief as knowledge it must be true, certain, and obtained by a reliable process. For what is reliable and true will also be rational. A.P.Griffiths followed this view in 1967 by saying one can only know p if the method used for arriving at p is demonstrated to consistently achieve the same conclusion.

    • Word count: 2302
  17. Domestic Violence and Women.

    Women who are victims of physical and emotional abuse rarely report it to the police. They do not seek help because they believe that domestic violence should remain a private matter. Domestic violence is underreported because of this belief. Although, it is difficult to obtain an exact estimate of the number of domestic assaults per year because, "only about one third of the total number per year are actually reported" (Dwyer, 1995). Violence between spouse and intimate partners is a serious social problem. The national family violence survey and the national victimization survey estimate that at least two million women are beaten by their partners each year (Kantor and Jasinski 1997).

    • Word count: 3019
  18. Movies and teenagers behaviour.

    Violence on the silver screen has been an issue that has plagued man from the day it was invented. Numerous movies depict violent acts such as rape, murder, and other such acts that many people consider inappropriate for adolescents, to be a normal everyday event, that happens inevitably, so we might as well go with the flow. The question is whether this violence on television and in movies is leading to a rise in violence in society, or if it is the violence in society that is leading to an accurate portrayal in movies?

    • Word count: 706
  19. Considering creatures by the name of Hard Cases, we are to assume that their perceptual beliefs are involuntary in the "hard way" where they do not retain intellectual authority over what they believe.

    If deontological theory is true, no "hard involuntary" beliefs are justified. a. Deontological theory is based on epistemic justification where we honor epistemic duties. b. When we honor epistemic duties, we have implied epistemic duties that we ought to (and can) complete. c. Since we have epistemic duties, all of the beliefs that we make after performing these duties have a voluntary nature; that is, we may accept or reject the end analysis because we have a choice to do so.

    • Word count: 4393
  20. Discuss how violent material on screen might - a) Do harm and b) Do good.

    This link is fairly obvious, just clear cause and effect. Unfortunately, the cause and effect in many other areas of life are not as readily apparent. A few decades ago you would see doctors in TV commercials endorsing a particular brand of cigarettes. Today the evidence is clear: smoking is the number one cause of premature death and preventable heath problems. Although in the interest of profits cigarette manufacturers suppressed evidence for some time linking smoking and health problems, eventually the cause-effect relationship became obvious to anyone who wanted investigate the facts.

    • Word count: 1811
  21. The family is often described as 'A Haven in a Heartless World'. Discuss this statement with reference to Domestic Violence.

    As notions of control feature heavily in feminist debates surrounding the issue of domestic violence, it may be argued that this issue raises the concept of the split between the public and the private spheres of social life. An article by Larkin and Popaleni (1994) develops this theme further. They claim that, "...inquiry into the arena of the 'private', therefore makes it possible to understand broader political relations inculding males' harassment of females in the 'public' sphere." (Larkin and Popaleni, 1994.

    • Word count: 2003
  22. Describe Biblical teaching which might be used to support pacifism.

    Pacifists (are not only Christians) do fight against injustice and aggression, but in a non-violent way. Christian teaching about agape includes the belief that love should be shown unconditionally to everyone so it is difficult for many Christians to see how loving someone could involve killing them in a war. The verse in Micah, "...Nation will not take up sword against nation...", may be interpreted as meaning that peace is a feature of the kingdom of God and so therefore Christians should be peaceful themselves.

    • Word count: 496
  23. What evidence is there for prehistoric interpersonal violence in the archaeological record?

    The spearhead was still lodged in the second man's back. There is no plausible explanation for how these men could have sustained such injuries without being involved in some form of interpersonal conflict. Leading on from this, is evidence of massacres. These are largely identified by the way in which bodies are buried and the gender and age of the people buried there. Indications of a Neolithic massacre were discovered in 1983 in Talheim, Germany. The remains of 34 people were discovered at this site; 16 children, 11 men and 7 women.

    • Word count: 1069
  24. We live in a world of armed conflict - Explain what differing Christian beliefs of armed conflict might be.

    Nuclear warfare is achieved by putting radioactive substances in a warhead which on collision will cause mass destruction. Christians believe in Jesus Christ and they listen to his teachings and do there utmost to follow his example. Christians have different views on war and these views can be supported by the bible and teachings of the church. In the bible there are passages that support war and violence if necessary. When Jesus was alive, Palestine was occupied by the Romans and the Jews were controlled by them and subjected to their laws. In 'The Spirit of the Lord' Jesus proclaims that he will 'Bring good news to the poor, proclaim liberty to the captives, and set free the oppressed' This is a passage that rebels against the Roman rule and has a violent tone.

    • Word count: 2346
  25. Discuss the meaning of healing miracles with reference to present day belief and Christian life.

    Food for Harvest festival - Sharing the food we have with others who are need of it. 'The draught of Fish (Luke 5:1-10)' teaches Christians that we may find our small efforts are blessed with great fruitfulness if we submit to Christ as Lord, and do as He commands. But we must go into deeper water, develop a deeper relationship with Him and allow Him to use our resources in doing so. Feeling close to God may have very little correlation to the truth and that sinful man can never stand in the presence of a holy God. The general healing miracles (Jesus healing the sick) can also teach Christians a lot, which we can use today.

    • Word count: 1352

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