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A practical study of the periodic table.

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Introduction

Topic: A practical study of the periodic table. The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev intended the table to illustrate recurring ("periodic") trends in the properties of the elements. The layout of the table has been refined and extended over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed to explain chemical behaviour1. A chemical bonding that occurs in the compounds of the elements is affected by their position in the periodic table. The bonding, in turn, has an impact on the formulae and properties of the compounds. A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity2. A chemical property is used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity3. pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are considered acidic, while those with a pH greater than seven are considered basic. pH 7 is defined as neutral because it is the pH of pure water at 25 �C4. PLANNING (A) Patterns in the properties of elements. Table 1. Atom Na Mg Ca Al Si P Atomic number 11 12 20 13 14 15 Ionisation energy 494 736 590 577 786 1060 Electro-negativity 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.1 Mass of atom 23 24 40 27 28 31 Type of element m m m m nm nm Key: m - metal nm - non-metal On the basis of the table we may clearly see the correlation between atomic number and mass of an atom. ...read more.

Middle

solid changes into liquid Action of water on chloride * - - * reacts violently * pH of solution in water 5 4 3 3 < 7 < 7 Structure of chloride ionic ionic ionic crystal intermediate molecular covalent molecular covalent DATA PROCESSING & PRESENTATION i. The oxides The oxides of the elements chosen are all poorly volatile solids. They change their pH from basic to acidic, with amphoteric at the border. Ionic solids such as Na and Mg react with water to form an alkaline solution of the hydroxide. Na2O(s) + H2O(l) � 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) MgO(s) + 2H+(l) � Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l) Aluminium oxide, which is amphoteric, dissolves in both alkalis and acids. Al2O3(s) + 6H+(aq) � 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2O(l) Al2O3(s) + 2OH-(aq) + 3H2O(l) � 2Al(OH)4-(aq) Silicon dioxide is capable of forming silicates in hot concentrated alkalis. SiO2(s) + 2OH-(aq) � SiO32-(aq) + H2O(l) Phosphorus oxide is a solid with molecular covalent bonding and low melting point resulting from it. It react with water to form acid that later may become dissociated. P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) � 4H2PO4-(aq) + 4H+(aq) Chosen reactions of oxides with water, hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride are presented below (to simplify states of matter were omitted): Table 4. Oxide formula Reacts with: water acid base Na2O Na2O + H2O � 2NaOH Na2O + 2HCl � 2NaCl + H2O Na2O + NaOH � NaOH + Na2O MgO MgO + H2O � Mg(OH)2 MgO + HCl � MgCl2 + H2O MgO + 2NaOH � Mg(OH)2 + 2NaO CaO CaO + H2O � Ca(OH)2 CaO + 2HCl � CaCl2 + ...read more.

Conclusion

Giant covalent bonding (found in SiO4) is very strong, so the structure cannot dissolve in solvents. Another property easy to measure and evaluate is pH. As we can see in Table 1., oxides tend to change in periods from basic (on the left-hand side), through amphoteric to acidic (on the right-hand side), while all of the chlorides are of acidic pH. Sodium, magnesium and calcium are acidic as chlorides and basic as oxides and aluminium oxide is amphoteric (can dissolve in both bases and acids). To evaluate this experiment I would suggest using pH meter for each solution instead of pH indicator test strips. Those, although new, did not give us an exact value of pH, varying up to 2 in comparison to pH meter, which is a serious mistake. Furthermore, the pH meter was checked by the teacher whether it did work properly, but there might still have been deviations while measuring pH. Another mistake was done by adding too large amounts of the substances resulting in insolubility of some of them, although theoretically they are soluble. Greater attention should be paid to use an amount of substance that would be proportional to the amount of lime water so that the results will not be changed. SOURCES: 1. Green J, Damji S. 2001. Chemistry. Second edition. IBID Press, Victioria, Australia. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table 3. http://www.chemicool.com/ 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_properties 6. http://dict.die.net/chemical%20property/ 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph 1 This definition comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table 2 This definition comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_properties 3 This definition comes from http://dict.die.net/chemical%20property/ 4 This definition comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph A PRACTICAL STUDY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE 1 ...read more.

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