• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

A practical study of the periodic table.

Extracts from this document...


Topic: A practical study of the periodic table. The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev intended the table to illustrate recurring ("periodic") trends in the properties of the elements. The layout of the table has been refined and extended over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed to explain chemical behaviour1. A chemical bonding that occurs in the compounds of the elements is affected by their position in the periodic table. The bonding, in turn, has an impact on the formulae and properties of the compounds. A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity2. A chemical property is used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity3. pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are considered acidic, while those with a pH greater than seven are considered basic. pH 7 is defined as neutral because it is the pH of pure water at 25 �C4. PLANNING (A) Patterns in the properties of elements. Table 1. Atom Na Mg Ca Al Si P Atomic number 11 12 20 13 14 15 Ionisation energy 494 736 590 577 786 1060 Electro-negativity 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.1 Mass of atom 23 24 40 27 28 31 Type of element m m m m nm nm Key: m - metal nm - non-metal On the basis of the table we may clearly see the correlation between atomic number and mass of an atom. ...read more.


solid changes into liquid Action of water on chloride * - - * reacts violently * pH of solution in water 5 4 3 3 < 7 < 7 Structure of chloride ionic ionic ionic crystal intermediate molecular covalent molecular covalent DATA PROCESSING & PRESENTATION i. The oxides The oxides of the elements chosen are all poorly volatile solids. They change their pH from basic to acidic, with amphoteric at the border. Ionic solids such as Na and Mg react with water to form an alkaline solution of the hydroxide. Na2O(s) + H2O(l) � 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) MgO(s) + 2H+(l) � Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l) Aluminium oxide, which is amphoteric, dissolves in both alkalis and acids. Al2O3(s) + 6H+(aq) � 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2O(l) Al2O3(s) + 2OH-(aq) + 3H2O(l) � 2Al(OH)4-(aq) Silicon dioxide is capable of forming silicates in hot concentrated alkalis. SiO2(s) + 2OH-(aq) � SiO32-(aq) + H2O(l) Phosphorus oxide is a solid with molecular covalent bonding and low melting point resulting from it. It react with water to form acid that later may become dissociated. P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) � 4H2PO4-(aq) + 4H+(aq) Chosen reactions of oxides with water, hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride are presented below (to simplify states of matter were omitted): Table 4. Oxide formula Reacts with: water acid base Na2O Na2O + H2O � 2NaOH Na2O + 2HCl � 2NaCl + H2O Na2O + NaOH � NaOH + Na2O MgO MgO + H2O � Mg(OH)2 MgO + HCl � MgCl2 + H2O MgO + 2NaOH � Mg(OH)2 + 2NaO CaO CaO + H2O � Ca(OH)2 CaO + 2HCl � CaCl2 + ...read more.


Giant covalent bonding (found in SiO4) is very strong, so the structure cannot dissolve in solvents. Another property easy to measure and evaluate is pH. As we can see in Table 1., oxides tend to change in periods from basic (on the left-hand side), through amphoteric to acidic (on the right-hand side), while all of the chlorides are of acidic pH. Sodium, magnesium and calcium are acidic as chlorides and basic as oxides and aluminium oxide is amphoteric (can dissolve in both bases and acids). To evaluate this experiment I would suggest using pH meter for each solution instead of pH indicator test strips. Those, although new, did not give us an exact value of pH, varying up to 2 in comparison to pH meter, which is a serious mistake. Furthermore, the pH meter was checked by the teacher whether it did work properly, but there might still have been deviations while measuring pH. Another mistake was done by adding too large amounts of the substances resulting in insolubility of some of them, although theoretically they are soluble. Greater attention should be paid to use an amount of substance that would be proportional to the amount of lime water so that the results will not be changed. SOURCES: 1. Green J, Damji S. 2001. Chemistry. Second edition. IBID Press, Victioria, Australia. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table 3. http://www.chemicool.com/ 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_properties 6. http://dict.die.net/chemical%20property/ 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph 1 This definition comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table 2 This definition comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_properties 3 This definition comes from http://dict.die.net/chemical%20property/ 4 This definition comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph A PRACTICAL STUDY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Classifying Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Classifying Materials essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry revision notes. Atomic Structure and Bonding, Electrolysis, Acids and Alkalis.

    5 star(s)

    They conduct electricity only when melted or dissolved in water. 4) Many ionic substances are soluble in water. Calculations Summary (F) Formula masses (Ar and Mr) The Ar is the relative atomic mass from the periodic table. The Ar values of the atoms in a formula are added to

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Identifying an Ionic Compound. Objectives: To learn and test for metal ions ...

    5 star(s)

    Electron affinity is the ease of anion formation. To form an ionic compound: the compound must be neutral. 0. Write the chemical symbol for each element and deduce the charge of the two ions. The cation is the first part, the anion is the second part. 0. Deduce how many of each are required in order for that sum of charges to equal zero.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry Revision Notes on atomic structure, nuclear power and the periodic table

    4 star(s)

    > The following properties can be observed across all periods: * Relative atomic size decreases from left to right. * Electrons are held more strongly by nucleus. * Atoms have a greater tendency to attract electrons. * Metallic character decreases, non metallic characteristics increases, ends in a noble gas.

  2. Rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid on magnesium.

    Whilst carrying out the first trial, I had realised that the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium lasted quite short amount of time because when it got to the last minute the reaction had already finished. This is why I had chosen to record the weight down of the reaction every 15 seconds instead of 30 seconds.

  1. The rates of reaction between CaCO3 and HCL

    2Oml of HCl is required but this measurement needs to be taken from the bottom of the meniscus the eye needs to be inline with the bottom of the meniscus to prevent errors due to parallax. Also the measuring cylinder needs to be placed on a level flat surface and

  2. Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid according to the equation below

    As the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased, the rate of reaction increases. The results of this investigation showed me that there was a definite link between the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the amount of gas given off. The preliminary work shows that there is a link, which may be directly proportional.

  1. Free essay

    Periodic table

    Can penetrate human skin and damage cells. Do not penetrate thin layers of plastic, wood or aluminium Gamma rays: not particles but bursts of energy which is released when alpha or beta particles are emitted. They travel at the speed of light and highly penetrate. They cause serious and permanent damage to the human body.

  2. Ions - a qualitative analysis on our chemicals by flame testing.

    My first potential problem was contamination of the samples. With standing as my first potential I easily overcame it with simple solution of pour out the samples into separate beakers so they would not get contaminated by me accidentally dipping the metal wire in to the wrong substance.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work