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A report investigating the effect of Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid on Marble Chips (Calcium Carbonate).

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TO: Dr. Al - Khalidi FROM: Nadia Falcon (11-MHA) - Baylis Court School. SUBJECT: DATE: March 9, 2001 TITLE: A report investigating the effect of Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid on Marble Chips (Calcium Carbonate) ( Planning ( Introduction ( Hypothesis/ Prediction ( Apparatus & Safety ? Method ? Fair Test ( Experiment ? Results/Table ? Graph ( Conclusion ? Evaluation Aim & Planning: Aim: In this report on Reaction Rate, I am required to investigate how altering the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) affects the rate of reaction with Marble chips (Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3). Plan: My plan will be to add certain amount of acid and 3g of marble chip in a tube. I will leave it for 1 minute and measure the amount of carbon dioxide produced. I will then add some water to make it even. Next, I will add a little more Hydrochloric acid to make it concentrated and again leave it for 1 minute and measure the amount of carbon dioxide produced. I will repeat this process several times. A number of reactions would be carried out in which the temperature and volumes of calcium carbonate will be kept the same, but the concentration of each reaction would be different. I will record these results and repeat this processes five times using different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Finally, I will be performing the actual experiment to this effect and the details will be noted down in a table supported by a graph to support my experiment. Introduction: I am also going to explain the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Marble chips (calcium carbonate) by changing the factor (variable) of Concentration in this investigation. I will alter the concentration of the hydrochloric acid each time, and then measure the amount of Carbon dioxide gas given out. The chemical equation for this reaction is: HCl (acid) + CaCO3 (base) ---> CaCl + CO2 + H2O Background Information: Calcium Carbonate - The chemical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3. ...read more.


As this happens the rate of reaction slowly decreases and levels at the same point. The key point however, is that, the higher concentration reaction will achieve this in a shorter amount of time, hence my graph will have a steeper initial gradient and will level off to 0 once the reaction stops. Hence, more diluted is the solution, the lesser is the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced. I would expect to obtain the diagram of my experiment something as shown below, (if I dilute the HCL acid with different measurements of water at each stage). Volume of acid (cm3) Apparatus & Safety: Test tube Stopper Rubber-tubing Syringe Timer Top-pan balance or mass balance Marble chips Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Distilled water 2 Clamps Safety: Before starting with performing the experiment, we have to ensure, to follow the outlined safety procedures: Laboratory Safety - Protective clothing * Students must wear protective glasses or safety goggles when diluting concentrated acids, bases, or heat chemicals. There is always the danger of hot or caustic materials being splashed into the eyes. * Students should wear strong shoes and take care of unbuttoned long sleeves and long hair. * Students must wear protective clothing, e.g. gloves, aprons, safety goggles when chemicals are being handled. Teachers should be aware of students who wear contact lenses. Laboratory Safety - Experimental procedures * While performing the experiment, students should ensure to set the things in the middle of the table and not at the side because it may fall off. * Read the label on reagent bottles twice to avoid errors. * Always follow exactly the instructions for chemical experiments. * Do not substitute another chemical for chemicals specified in the experiment. * Clean up the area after use. * Wash your hands. Method: Since I have written my hypothesis (prediction with explanation) and outlined the apparatus and safety measures, my next step is to decide how to do the experiments. ...read more.


If I were to do this experiment again, I would probably make it more accurate by using a Burette instead of a syringe, to measure the amount of gas given off, because a burette is accurate to 0.1 ml. Also, the readings of the volume of gas collected after each minute should have been made until the reaction is complete for each experiment. It means, the reaction should stop in each case when the marble chips, has completely dissolved. So, I feel that given full time for the chips to dissolve in each experiment, would have given me much more accurate measurements and show at which points the rate of reaction was at best and the curve line of reaction on the graph. From this graph it may well be clear that one or two individual results, or a whole set of readings, may not fit very closely to the trend - anomalous results! The measurements may not be that accurate because, this experiment was done on two different days, i.e. one set of results was done on a different day when the temperature in the room may have been different. To ensure that there is place for improvement and if I had to do the experiment all over again, I will have to do the following to improve the accuracy of my results: * Wait for final measurement until the reaction is complete and the marble chip has completely dissolved. * I will ensure that the experiment is done on one day itself, because a change in temperature does effect the rate of reaction. * I will ensure that the test-tube and syringe is completely dry, before I start with the new experiment. In many reactions it is not convenient to measure concentration - instead some other property is monitored which represents the concentration directly, e.g. loss in mass, production of gas, change in color, change in pH, change in conductivity or change in pressure. If I increase both variables, (temperature and concentration) the rate of reaction will definitely increase. 8 2 ...read more.

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