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A study of the operation of two stroke, four stroke and diesel engines

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Experiment M4


A study of the operation of two stroke, four stroke and diesel engines


Cooling system

The function of the cooling system is to keep the engine from over heating by transferring this heat to the air. It also allow the engine to heat up as quickly as possible and then to keep the engine at a constant temperature. Cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator and water pump. Water circulates through passages around the cylinders and then travels through the radiator to cool it off. In some other cars, especially old cars the engine is air-cooled instead. Air-cooling makes the engine lighter but hotter, generally decreasing engine life and overall performance


A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder

Connecting rod

The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft.

...read more.



The aim of this experiment is to investigate a test on a modern multi-cylinder diesel engine in order to draw up an energy balance for the engine, showing how the energy supplied to the engine can be evaluated.


Engine:  Peugeot four cylinder, four stroke, 2.3 litre diesel engine.

Output: Heenan-Froude water dynamometer

Temperatures: Thermocouples

Cooling water flow: Flowmeter

Fuel consumption: Stopwatch and 50, 100, or 200 ml pipettes.

Air flow: Air drum with 60mm orifice and inclined water manometer

Atmospheric pressure: Mercury barometer

Fuel specific gravity: Hydrometer


The engine was warmed up and run at a steady speed of 2500 rev/min and at high throttle opening until all temperatures had stabilised. A set of readings was then taken as follows:

Atmospheric pressure                               p (mm. Hg)


      Added mass                                         m (kg)

      Spring balance reading                        S (N)

      Engine speed                                        N (rev/min)


          Lower calorific value                      LCV = 43 (MJ/kg)

          Density                                            image01.png (kg/ l) = 0.854 kg/l

          Volume                                            V (m/l)  

...read more.


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  1. energy supplied to the engine in the fuel (Qr)

Energy supplied per second =

image03.png             kw

For mass 0 kg → image04.png


  1. shaft power (image06.png)

image07.png              kw



Thermal Efficiency =       ______shaft power____________

image10.png                                       Energy supplied to engine fuel


                                        = 675.29                                  

Specific fuel consumption = Fuel mass flow rate per hour

                                                     Shaft power Kw

...read more.

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