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A study of the operation of two stroke, four stroke and diesel engines

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Introduction

Experiment M4

Aim

A study of the operation of two stroke, four stroke and diesel engines

Introduction

Cooling system

The function of the cooling system is to keep the engine from over heating by transferring this heat to the air. It also allow the engine to heat up as quickly as possible and then to keep the engine at a constant temperature. Cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator and water pump. Water circulates through passages around the cylinders and then travels through the radiator to cool it off. In some other cars, especially old cars the engine is air-cooled instead. Air-cooling makes the engine lighter but hotter, generally decreasing engine life and overall performance

Pistons

A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder

Connecting rod

The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft.

...read more.

Middle

Aim

The aim of this experiment is to investigate a test on a modern multi-cylinder diesel engine in order to draw up an energy balance for the engine, showing how the energy supplied to the engine can be evaluated.

Equipment

Engine:  Peugeot four cylinder, four stroke, 2.3 litre diesel engine.

Output: Heenan-Froude water dynamometer

Temperatures: Thermocouples

Cooling water flow: Flowmeter

Fuel consumption: Stopwatch and 50, 100, or 200 ml pipettes.

Air flow: Air drum with 60mm orifice and inclined water manometer

Atmospheric pressure: Mercury barometer

Fuel specific gravity: Hydrometer

Procedure

The engine was warmed up and run at a steady speed of 2500 rev/min and at high throttle opening until all temperatures had stabilised. A set of readings was then taken as follows:

Atmospheric pressure                               p (mm. Hg)

Dynamometer:

      Added mass                                         m (kg)

      Spring balance reading                        S (N)

      Engine speed                                        N (rev/min)

Fuel:

          Lower calorific value                      LCV = 43 (MJ/kg)

          Density                                            image01.png (kg/ l) = 0.854 kg/l

          Volume                                            V (m/l)  

...read more.

Conclusion

"c7 c1">154

2500

200

66.49

Calculation

  1. energy supplied to the engine in the fuel (Qr)

Energy supplied per second =

image03.png             kw

For mass 0 kg → image04.png

image05.png

  1. shaft power (image06.png)

image07.png              kw

image08.png

image09.png

Thermal Efficiency =       ______shaft power____________

image10.png                                       Energy supplied to engine fuel

image02.png

                                        = 675.29                                  

Specific fuel consumption = Fuel mass flow rate per hour

                                                     Shaft power Kw

...read more.

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