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Acid and Metal Reaction Investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning The reaction of an acid with a metal is a good way of producing hydrogen in the laboratory. Usually a moderately reactive metal is used as this means the hydrogen doesn't come off to quickly or slowly. Zinc is quite often chosen e.g. Zinc + Sulphuric acid --> Zinc Sulphate + Hydrogen The reactivity of metals with acid can cause corrosion problems where there are acidic gasses in the air. An example of an acidic gas is Sulphur dioxide. It pollutes the air in industrial areas causing acid rain. This acidity sometimes makes cars, bridges, statues etc corrode. All metals react the same when above hydrogen in the reactivity series, an example of an equation of this is: Metal + Acid --> Metal Salt + Hydrogen All substances are made up of particles, reactions only occur if reacting particles collide together, this is called the collision theory. Collisions are only successful if the collisions exceed the minimum activity energy. You can increase the rate this reaction occurs by increasing the number of collisions per second, or increase the average force of collisions. Some factors that will affect the rate of reaction are the temperature of the room and the solution. The higher the temperature the quicker the reaction. The concentration of the solution also affects the reaction rate as the greater the amount of acid then the greater the rate. ...read more.

Middle

75 74 74 14 16 95 96 96 96 Apparatus * Sulphuric Acid * Water * Beaker * Stirrer * Magnesium Ribbon * Burette Analysis My first graph shows the time it takes a 1cm piece of magnesium ribbon to dissolve in different concentrations. The time is done in seconds and the concentrations in ratios e.g. 14/16 The graph clearly shows that the more acid in the concentration the less time it takes to dissolve. Therefore the more dilute the acid is the longer the magnesium will take to dissolve. The results of the experiment fit in with my prediction that the higher the concentration of acid the less time the magnesium will take to dissolve. This is because the acid is less dilute which means that the pieces of magnesium will dissolve slower than a more concentrated solution. This occurs as there would be less meaningful collisions. I found no anomalous results in my experiment. This may be because the readings were taken in controlled circumstances so we were able to perform a fair test. I believe that I should draw another graph to find out the rate of reactions. I will do this by using the equation. Speed = Distance Time Speed will represent the rate of reaction ( this is what we want to find out ). ...read more.

Conclusion

I found no big anomalous results on my graphs, when doing the experiment I took averages which helped to filter out any anomalous results from my readings, but even I these my results seemed quite constant. I believe I made my experiment a very fair test. I measured the acid and the water out carefully to ensyre the concentration was correct. I also stirred constantly on every concentration to make sure we has similar results and keep a fair test. The results on my graphs reflect this by following a curve and line of best fit. Due to the small amount of solution we used the smaller concentrations there became less sulphuric acid particles which meant there was a less effective collisions. The only way this could have been prevented if there was a infinite amount of acid which would make the loss of concentration irrelevant. We could improve the experiment by using a micrometer screw gauge to measure the magnesium ribbon more accurately. This would ensure that we had the same surface area on each magnesium piece. We could also use a stirring mechanism to ensure constant stirring. This would solve any problems we had with not being able to keep it constant by stirring manually e.g. tiring after stirring for a period. To further this experiment we could maybe try doing different lengths of magnesium or change the surface area. This would enable us to see what happened if there was less or more surface area. ...read more.

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