• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Acid Rain.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The process Power stations/ cars burn fossil fuels and releases sulphur dioxide (SO2) + Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) in the atmosphere. Gases react in the upper atmosphere water vapour in clouds to acid. Falls as H2SO4 (Acid Rain) Main Sources of SO2 NOX Source Amount Power station 61% 46% Refineries/Industry 28% Domestic (Houses) 5% 23% Commercial & Public 4% 3% Transport 2% 28% The causes of acid rain is down to emission of pollutants from ~ combustion of fossil fuels ~ industrial processes ~ Transport sector Especially SO2 & Nox Some countries have suffered more than others. Some of them are net importers and others are net exporters. The effects of acid rain are ~ Direct impact on vegetation as a result of exposure to acid solution ~ Percolation of acid rain through soil increases teaching of nutrients, so soil becomes less fertile. ...read more.

Middle

The Germans call this "Waldsterben". 4000 lakes are devoid of fish in Sweden. There has been a drastic decline of otters in UK. This is due to lack of fish What can be done? Normal rain is already slightly acidic in the region of about 5.6ph. Nowadays extremes of ph in our rainfall have measured 3ph or ph 4. The environment economic, social and political implications are serious. What can be done? The first action was taken by environmental pressure groups in the late 70's and early 80's with their "stop acid rain!" campaign. By this time net importers of acid rain already identified signs of ecological disaster. These countries began to mobilise and here are some significant dates: 1984: Scandinavian countries signed an informal agreement to reduce SO2, emmitions by 30%. ...read more.

Conclusion

At last there are a number of conventions and plans to reduce levels of acid rain around the world. There are two ways to solve this they are either avoiding the illness or treat the symptoms. Avoiding the illness ~ Change energy sources ~Fit pollution control equipment e.g. filters i.e. flue gas desulphurisation (Flue gas) (All new power stations now have this equipment ~Increase efficiency/ conservation methods Treating the symptoms ~ Treat lakes with powdered limestone but costly and only short term ~ Shells placed in water causes to produce calcium carbonate over time NB. To achieve EC directive levels Britain's bill for fitting flue gas desulphurisation equipment is about �2billion (that could be a reason why the government was slow to accept that acid rain was a problem. They need a lot of limestone to FGD operation this limestone is mined in National park. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Investigating the effects of varying pH levels on the germination of cress seeds

    ?� = ? (O - E)� E Combination of pH and germination success (O - E) (O - E)� (O - E)� E pH 1 ? -48.4 2342.56 48.4 pH 2 ? -48.4 2342.56 48.4 pH 3 ? 10.6 112.36 2.321487603 pH 4 ? 5.6 31.36 0.647933884 pH 5 ?

  2. The effect of Acid Rain on Seed Germination.

    ? ? ? ? ? 2 70 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 60 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 50 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 40 ? ? ? ? ? ?

  1. Acid Rain

    Consequently, tree vitality and regenerative capability is reduced. All this will destroy all the vegetation on the earth. As a result, there will no longer be a source of food for human beings to survive on this planet. 4.4 atmosphere Acid rain also affects the atmosphere.

  2. To investigate the effects of acid rain on statues

    All glassware should be handled carefully to ensure no breakages. If any breakage occurs, it should be cleaned and cleared away to avoid any risk of injury. Wash my hands after the practical work. Fair Test My controlled variables in this experiment are the concentration of the acid and the

  1. Formation and Effects of Acid Rain.

    Acid rain is defiantly a global problem. This is because the wind takes away the clouds that contain the acid and send them to another country/nation. This means that the country that produces the acid rain is causing damage to another country. Countries in Europe such as the UK and Germany produce vast amounts of sulphur; however,

  2. Acid rain in Europe

    Britain has contributed at least 16% of the acid deposition in Norway. Over 90% of Norway's acid pollution comes from other countries. The main European polluters are Germany, UK, Poland and Spain with each of them producing over one million tonnes of sulphur emissions in 1994.

  1. Water Pollution & Sewage Disposal

    damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet) and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage.

  2. An Investigation of the weathering of limestone.

    But there are still quite a few reacting particles left so the rate of reaction won't be greatly affected. Quantitive diagram Apparatus: In the experiment I will use a balance to weigh out the limestone accurately with a spatula from a beaker.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work