• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Acid Rain.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The process Power stations/ cars burn fossil fuels and releases sulphur dioxide (SO2) + Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) in the atmosphere. Gases react in the upper atmosphere water vapour in clouds to acid. Falls as H2SO4 (Acid Rain) Main Sources of SO2 NOX Source Amount Power station 61% 46% Refineries/Industry 28% Domestic (Houses) 5% 23% Commercial & Public 4% 3% Transport 2% 28% The causes of acid rain is down to emission of pollutants from ~ combustion of fossil fuels ~ industrial processes ~ Transport sector Especially SO2 & Nox Some countries have suffered more than others. Some of them are net importers and others are net exporters. The effects of acid rain are ~ Direct impact on vegetation as a result of exposure to acid solution ~ Percolation of acid rain through soil increases teaching of nutrients, so soil becomes less fertile. ...read more.

Middle

The Germans call this "Waldsterben". 4000 lakes are devoid of fish in Sweden. There has been a drastic decline of otters in UK. This is due to lack of fish What can be done? Normal rain is already slightly acidic in the region of about 5.6ph. Nowadays extremes of ph in our rainfall have measured 3ph or ph 4. The environment economic, social and political implications are serious. What can be done? The first action was taken by environmental pressure groups in the late 70's and early 80's with their "stop acid rain!" campaign. By this time net importers of acid rain already identified signs of ecological disaster. These countries began to mobilise and here are some significant dates: 1984: Scandinavian countries signed an informal agreement to reduce SO2, emmitions by 30%. ...read more.

Conclusion

At last there are a number of conventions and plans to reduce levels of acid rain around the world. There are two ways to solve this they are either avoiding the illness or treat the symptoms. Avoiding the illness ~ Change energy sources ~Fit pollution control equipment e.g. filters i.e. flue gas desulphurisation (Flue gas) (All new power stations now have this equipment ~Increase efficiency/ conservation methods Treating the symptoms ~ Treat lakes with powdered limestone but costly and only short term ~ Shells placed in water causes to produce calcium carbonate over time NB. To achieve EC directive levels Britain's bill for fitting flue gas desulphurisation equipment is about �2billion (that could be a reason why the government was slow to accept that acid rain was a problem. They need a lot of limestone to FGD operation this limestone is mined in National park. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Investigating the effects of varying pH levels on the germination of cress seeds

    In accordance with my hypothesis, it would have been expected that more seeds would have germinated in the 0.5% concentrated sample than in the 1% concentrated sample (but less than in the 0.3% concentrated sample). My initial estimate to explain this anomaly would be the distribution of seeds at the beginning of the experiment.

  2. To investigate the effects of acid rain on statues

    amount of limestone powder that will be added, so I have to measure it carefully in order to obtain the best results and keeping the test fair at the same time. It is important to keep the reactants separate whilst setting up the apparatus so that the starting time of the reaction can be measured accurately.

  1. Acid Rain

    the effects of global warming just by being conscious of our actions. We could reduce the amount of energy consumption by making fewer journeys and using better insulation in our homes. This would lessen the need to burn coal and oils, and lead to reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.

  2. Acid rain in Europe

    Britain has contributed at least 16% of the acid deposition in Norway. Over 90% of Norway's acid pollution comes from other countries. The main European polluters are Germany, UK, Poland and Spain with each of them producing over one million tonnes of sulphur emissions in 1994.

  1. Acid Rain

    The acid in the acid rain comes from two kinds of air pollutants, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x). About 2/3 of all SO2 and 1/4 of all NOx comes from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal.

  2. The effect of Acid Rain on Seed Germination.

    In contrast to sulphur, nitrogen is not an impurity but rather a part of the organic material making up fossil fuels. Fossil fuel combustion releases nitrogen into the atmosphere, usually in the form of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is oxidized by certain atmospheric molecules, such as ozone or hydrogen dioxide, to form nitrogen dioxide.

  1. Acid Rain.

    This is typical a typical symptom of acid poisoning. The acid had entered the gills of the fish and poisoned them so that they were unable to extract salt from the water to maintain their bodies sodium levels. Many scientist said that this acid poising was due to the fact that it was just after the winter and that

  2. Formation and Effects of Acid Rain.

    Fossil fuels where created millions of years ago when dead plants and animals where put under a lot of pressure and where then chemically changed, hence the name fossil fuels. During this change they accumulated carbon and sulphur. For the energy in these fossil fuels to be gained they must be combusted (burnt)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work