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acid rain

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Introduction

What effect does increasing concentrations of Acid Rain have on the rate buildings made of limestone decay/dissolve? In our experiment we aimed to find out the effect of increasing concentrations of acid rain has on the rate of limestone dissolving. To do this we had to learn a bit of knowledge about acid rain and how it was formed. I learnt the process that results in the formation of acid rain generally begins with emissions into the atmosphere, which consists of gasses like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. These gases are released by automobiles, certain industrial operations (normally smelting and refining) and electrical stations which burn fuels like coal and oil. The gases combine with water vapour in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids. When precipitation falls from the clouds it is highly acidic, which normally consists of PH levels from 6 and lower. This can cause acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to the damage of trees at high elevations as it causes slower growth, injury, or death of forests. In addition, it has a major impact on old buildings which are made of softer and less sturdy materials causing them to erode and finally collapse if the acid rain puts too much strain on them. ...read more.

Middle

We repeated this whole process of getting the marble chips and acid, emptying and cleaning the equipment 3 times for every concentration of acid until we got a total of 18 successful results. We made this test as fair as possible by using the same amount of acid and marble chips each test, using roughly the same amount of water in the bath and cylinder, running it for the same amount of time and finally by cleaning the whole set of equipment every time. In addition we also made sure we kept our safety at high priority over everything and by doing this we made sure we wore safety glasses, slowly moving around when we had acid in our hands and just concentrating on everything we done. Background information Concentration is one aspect of the collision theory. The theory is that the higher the concentration of the reactants, the closer the particles are together and this means they will collide more often and this will speed up the rate of reaction. During this experiment we will discover whether this theory is correct. Activation energy is the amount of energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to take place, for it to activate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Luckily we did not get any outliers apart from the unsuccessful results at the beginning of our experiment. In addition I had confidence in our results because the equipment we used we kept it clean and made it very fair for each experiment by using the same instruments for every test, also none of it broke or had faults which would have given us unreliable results and would of disrupted our whole experiment. So to conclude that our results were reliable I can say that they are because of a few main factors which are that the equipment worked perfectly and did not have any faults, we made sure the whole test was fair from many ways (collected all the results in one day, changed the water each time, same amount of time on each) the other main factor was that the range bars were not too big which helps secure the confidence in our results. Conclusion To finally conclude this, from the background knowledge of collision theory and from my reliable set of result we got, I can say that the more concentrated the acid is, the faster and larger the reaction will be. ?? ?? ?? ?? Tom Mooney 10WT - Chemistry Coursework 30/06/2009 ...read more.

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