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Adaptation and Predation test questions

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Adaptation Surviving in difficult places Learn these key features of organisms in hot and cold places. Hot places Animals are small and have a large surface area to volume ratio for better heat loss. Animals are active only at dawn and dusk. They spend the heat of the day in a burrow. They have little fat for insulation. They have the ability to survive with little or no water. Cold places Animals are large and have a small surface area to volume ratio for little heat loss. They have thick layers of insulation (fat or fur). They have a white coat in winter and a grey/brown coat in summer for best camouflage. Predation There is a continuous war between predators and their prey. ...read more.


Most tropical seas are surprisingly short of life because they hold fewer minerals than colder waters. In tropical shallow seas, where the water temperatures are above 18�C, coral reefs can develop. The main species there are corals, which can grow in waters of up to 30m deep. Corals are animals but they have algae inside their cells which can photosynthesise. Corals feed by filtering small floating pieces of food and on the food that leaks out from the algae in their cells. Large and complicated food webs are built up around a coral reef, with many animals feeding on the coral itself, and others feeding on these. Yet other animals feed on scraps and particles in the water. ...read more.


Explain why over-collection of these species led to the destruction of the coral (2 marks). The Answer The over-collection of these species meant that there were no predators of starfish, and more starfish meant that more corals was eaten. Examiner's Note Well done. Notice too that triton shellfish, puffer fish and trigger fish are competing to eat starfish. This is not needed in this answer but is another example of competition. Question 3 Suggest why the coral might be particularly vulnerable to pollution (1 mark). The Answer The coral is particularly vulnerable to pollution because it grows in shallow water where the pollutants are not diluted. Examiner's Note This is a good suggestion. Looking at the passage you can see that corals feed by filtering small pieces of food, so they will tend to catch any particles of pollutants very easily, so an alternative answer would be that these will concentrate in their bodies and kill them. ...read more.

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