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Aim: To Determine The Concentration Of a Limewater Solution

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Introduction

Aim: To Determine The Concentration Of a Limewater Solution I am going to perform an experiment in which will allow me to determine the concentration, in g dm-3, of limewater given to me containing approximately 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. I will be performing a simple neutralisation reaction, using HCL, to determine the concentration. I will carry out a titration to determine this. 250cm3 of limewater will be given and the HCl provided is exactly 2.00mol dm-3. Background Information (Essential AS Chemistry) Limewater is formed when slacked lime is dissolved in water. The process is started by the vigorous reaction between calcium oxide (limestone) and water. This forms calcium hydroxide (slacked lime). The addition of more water saturates the slacked lime and forms an aqueous solution known as limewater. Equations ACID + METAL HYDROXIDE SALT + WATER Calcium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride + Water Ca(OH)2 aq + 2HClaq CaCl2aq + 2H2O Therefore the stoichiometric ratio is 2 : 1, hence 2 mol of HCL are required to neutralize 1 mol of Ca(OH)2. ...read more.

Middle

To calculate the required volume of 2.00 mol dm-3 HCL I will use the calculation below. Initial molarity (Mi) x initial volume (Vi) = final molarity (Mf) x final volume (Vf). (Jim Clark AS calculations). 2.00 x Vi = 0.2 x 0.25 (litres) Vi= 0.2 x 0.25/2.00 Vi= 0.025 (litres) Vi= 0.025 x 1000 = 25cm3 Standardisation Method Therefore, I will, fill up a 25cm3 pipette with HCL and empty into a 250cm3 volumetric flask. I will then top up the flask to the line with distilled water, ensuring the bottom of the meniscus is touching the line. This will give me acid of 0.2mol dm-3, so I will take 25 cm3 of this diluted acid and repeat the method above, consequently giving me 250cm3 of HCL at concentration, 0.02 mol dm-3 . N.B to ensure the diluted acid is thoroughly mixed I will invert the solution several times. Indicator Choice Through research on the internet (wikipedia), I was able to find out that methyl orange would be the best indicator for my experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Finally add four drops of methyl orange to the flask. 4. The first run of the titration will be used as a 'range finder', so add the HCL from the burette until there is a distinct colour change. 5. Once this change in colour has occurred take the reading of the burette and minus this away from the initial volume to give you the volume used in the neutralisation reaction. The first reading can be used as a range finder. 6. Repeat the experiment; this time release the acid drip by drip closer to the end point, ensuring the exact end point is recorded. Do this until your results are reliable and you have at least two concordant results. 7. All your results should be recorded in a table for later use in the analysis where you can calculate these. Safety Due to the chemicals used (HCl) lab coats, and safety specs have to be worn at all times. Apparatus Wooden Clamp and Stand Burette 50cm3 Pipette 25 cm3 and pipette filler Distilled Water Volumetric Flask 250cm3 Conical Flask 250cm3 White Tile Funnel Beaker Methyl Orange Indicator 250 cm3 of Limewater 2.00mol dm-3 Hydrochloric Acid ...read more.

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