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AIM: To study the effect of solid impurities on boiling point of water and find the Molal Elevation Constant (Kb) and to calculate the percentage difference from accepted value for Kb.

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Introduction

´╗┐PULKIT MITTAL (XII-B) CHEMISTRY PROJECT: ________________ Certificate This is to certify that PULKIT MITTAL of class 12-B has successfully completed the project work on chemistry for class XII practical examination of the Central Board of Secondary Education in the year 2011-2012.It is further certified that this project is the individual work of the candidate. Signature: Date: ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mrs. Kanupriya as well as our principal Mrs. Sunita Tanwar who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic- To study the effect of solid impurities on boiling point of water and find the Molal Elevation Constant (Kb) and to calculate the percentage difference from accepted value for Kb, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them. Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge. ...read more.

Middle

Typically, the primary component is called the solvent and the other components are called the solutes. Unlike other physical properties such as color or hardness, colligative properties depend only on the number of particles of solute in the solution, not the identity of the particles. In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend upon the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution. They are independent of the nature of the solute particles, and are due essentially to the dilution of the solvent by the solute. Colligative properties include: (1) Relative lowering of vapor pressure; (2) Elevation of boiling point; (3) Depression of freezing point and (4) Osmotic pressure The van?t Hoff Factor For inorganic salts in an aqueous solution, the salt will dissociate into cations and anions. If the salt fully dissociates, the total number of particles in the solution will be based on the addition of the number of moles of cations and anions produced from the dissociation. Thus; NaCl ? Na+ + Cl- (2moles particles produced) CaCl2?Ca2++ 2Cl- (3moles particles produced) The quantity of particles produced per mole of solute is called the van?t Hoff factor and is given the symbol, i Boiling Point Elevation When a solution is heated the vapour pressure of the solvent decreases in the presence of non-volatile solute (impurities). ...read more.

Conclusion

Repeat the above steps for K2SO4 solution and FeCl3 solution of approximately same molality as the NaCl solution 1. Record these observations as boiling point of K2SO4 solution and FeCl3 solution in the observation table Observation: The molality of solutes in the solutions is: [(5.5/58.5)/50]*1000= 1.88 {NaCl} [(16.5/174)/50]*1000 = 1.89 {K2SO4} [(15.2/162.2)/50]*1000 = 1.87 {FeCl3} S.No. Type of Solution/Water Boiling Point of Solution/Water (Tb) (Tw) In Kelvin Boiling Point Elevation (Tb-Tw) Molal Elevation Constant of Water (Kb) 1 Pure Water 373 - - 2 NaCl Solution 374.9 1.9 0.505 3 K2SO4 Solution 376.1 3.1 0.547 4 FeCl3 Solution 377.2 4.2 0.561 Result: 1. The maximum rise in boiling point is observed in FeCl3 solution (4.2C) followed by K2SO4 solution (3.1C) and then NaCl solution (1.9C). As the Van?t Hoff factor is maximum for FeCl3 (4) followed by K2SO4 (3) and then NaCl (2), our data proves that elevation in boiling point is a colligative property 1. The calculated mean value of Molal Elevation Constant of water is 0.538C/molal. This is in accordance with the accepted value 0.512C/molal. 1. The percentage deviation from accepted value is calculated as follows (0.538-0.512/0.512)*100 = (0.026/0.512)*100 = 5.08% Bibliography 1. Chemistry Part I Textbook for Class XII by NCERT, 2007 2. Core Laboratory Manual In Chemistry for Class XII, 2010 3. www.wikipedia.org 4. http://www.chm.uri.edu/sgeldart/chm102/102%20Exp%209. ...read more.

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