• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12

AIM: To study the effect of solid impurities on boiling point of water and find the Molal Elevation Constant (Kb) and to calculate the percentage difference from accepted value for Kb.

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐PULKIT MITTAL (XII-B) CHEMISTRY PROJECT: ________________ Certificate This is to certify that PULKIT MITTAL of class 12-B has successfully completed the project work on chemistry for class XII practical examination of the Central Board of Secondary Education in the year 2011-2012.It is further certified that this project is the individual work of the candidate. Signature: Date: ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mrs. Kanupriya as well as our principal Mrs. Sunita Tanwar who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic- To study the effect of solid impurities on boiling point of water and find the Molal Elevation Constant (Kb) and to calculate the percentage difference from accepted value for Kb, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them. Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge. ...read more.


Typically, the primary component is called the solvent and the other components are called the solutes. Unlike other physical properties such as color or hardness, colligative properties depend only on the number of particles of solute in the solution, not the identity of the particles. In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend upon the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution. They are independent of the nature of the solute particles, and are due essentially to the dilution of the solvent by the solute. Colligative properties include: (1) Relative lowering of vapor pressure; (2) Elevation of boiling point; (3) Depression of freezing point and (4) Osmotic pressure The van?t Hoff Factor For inorganic salts in an aqueous solution, the salt will dissociate into cations and anions. If the salt fully dissociates, the total number of particles in the solution will be based on the addition of the number of moles of cations and anions produced from the dissociation. Thus; NaCl ? Na+ + Cl- (2moles particles produced) CaCl2?Ca2++ 2Cl- (3moles particles produced) The quantity of particles produced per mole of solute is called the van?t Hoff factor and is given the symbol, i Boiling Point Elevation When a solution is heated the vapour pressure of the solvent decreases in the presence of non-volatile solute (impurities). ...read more.


Repeat the above steps for K2SO4 solution and FeCl3 solution of approximately same molality as the NaCl solution 1. Record these observations as boiling point of K2SO4 solution and FeCl3 solution in the observation table Observation: The molality of solutes in the solutions is: [(5.5/58.5)/50]*1000= 1.88 {NaCl} [(16.5/174)/50]*1000 = 1.89 {K2SO4} [(15.2/162.2)/50]*1000 = 1.87 {FeCl3} S.No. Type of Solution/Water Boiling Point of Solution/Water (Tb) (Tw) In Kelvin Boiling Point Elevation (Tb-Tw) Molal Elevation Constant of Water (Kb) 1 Pure Water 373 - - 2 NaCl Solution 374.9 1.9 0.505 3 K2SO4 Solution 376.1 3.1 0.547 4 FeCl3 Solution 377.2 4.2 0.561 Result: 1. The maximum rise in boiling point is observed in FeCl3 solution (4.2C) followed by K2SO4 solution (3.1C) and then NaCl solution (1.9C). As the Van?t Hoff factor is maximum for FeCl3 (4) followed by K2SO4 (3) and then NaCl (2), our data proves that elevation in boiling point is a colligative property 1. The calculated mean value of Molal Elevation Constant of water is 0.538C/molal. This is in accordance with the accepted value 0.512C/molal. 1. The percentage deviation from accepted value is calculated as follows (0.538-0.512/0.512)*100 = (0.026/0.512)*100 = 5.08% Bibliography 1. Chemistry Part I Textbook for Class XII by NCERT, 2007 2. Core Laboratory Manual In Chemistry for Class XII, 2010 3. www.wikipedia.org 4. http://www.chm.uri.edu/sgeldart/chm102/102%20Exp%209. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Freezing Point Depression

    Determination of Freezing Points of Solutions 1. Prepare 100ml of a solution with 5.85g of NaCl. 2. Prepare 10ml of a solution with 3.42g of sucrose. 3. Place a test tube 1/2 full of water in the ice bath. 4.

  2. Osmosis Project

    after we have had them in each of the solutions for different lengths of time. When using the weighing scales you need to make sure that they are always measuring things in the same units. - Carrots and Corer - We need to use a corer to cut the carrots so they are all equally sized and weight.

  1. The Determination of an Equilibrium Constant.

    produced equals the amount of CH3COOH (C2H5OH) reacted ?Number of moles of CH3COOC2H5 at equilibrium = 0.4875 mole Number of moles of H2O at equilibrium = 5.556 + 0.4875 = 6.0435 mole 4 [CH3COOC2H5] = 0.4875 / 0.25 mole dm-3 [H2O] = 6.0435 / 0.25 mole dm-3 [CH3COOH] = 0.825

  2. Establish what types of soil holds the most water and to see if changing ...

    or (ml) Absorbency rating (1- 4) best to worst Clay 14 1st Peaty 10 2nd Woodland 7 4th Sandy 11 3rd The pre test enabled us to get used to using the equipment needed for the actual investigation and the quantities of the soil samples we will need.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to answer the following question: What is the ...

    This is so that the :) I will also use the same amount of concentrated sulphuric acid catalyst for each experiment. This amount will be four drops from a small pipette. This is so that the overall concentration of acid will be easier to work out if the drops are constant.

  2. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    present in 100 cm3 of spinach extract solution. To do this the moles present in 10 cm3 will have to be multiplied by 10. 0.000363833 mol dm-3 X 10= 0.003866666 mol dm-3 Only 20 grams of Spinach Oleracea were used to make up the 100cm3 spinach extract solution, so in order to work out the moles of Iron (II)

  1. Organic observation exercise

    I believe compound Y is a ketone, specifically propanone as this compound would produce results that correspond to my observations. The diagrams on the next page show details for the infrared spectrum and the mass spectrum for compound Y: A table of characteristic absorptions for some different bonds is given

  2. Aim: Our aim is to find out and investigate the boiling temperatures of ...

    In the following beakers: Sugar + water, Salt + water and Baking soda + water, put 3 drops of food coloring in them. A different color of food coloring in each beaker. An example so you are sure you are on the right track: Sugar beaker is blue, Salt beaker

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work