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Aklenes and Alkanes Investigation

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Introduction

PLAN I am going to investigate that if the number of carbon atoms in an alkane effect the amount of heat released. The alkanes that I will use are Pentane (C5 H12 ), Hexane (C6 H14 ), Heptane (C7 H16 ) and Nonane (C9 H26 ). The formula that I will use to find the heat released is :- Mass (g) x Specific Heat Capacity (4.2/J/g/�C) x Temperature Rise (�C) ? Mass of Fuel The variables that might effect this investigation are :- * type of flame * amount of water * length of time * thermometer not started at room temperature * amount of the alkane * size of beaker holding the alkane * height from flame to beaker Prediction Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons because they only have single bonds between carbon atoms and are known to be in the homologous series, individuals are known as homologs. Alkanes burn in a plentiful supply of air to release energy (this is why they are used as fuels). ...read more.

Middle

- Using a clamp I will hold the brass beaker about 15cm above the alkane - The beaker I will be filled with exactly 50ml of water. - I will then place a thermometer in the beaker and set alight the alkane - I will leave this for 1 minute and after this I will note down the temperature - Then I will weigh the alkane again to find the mass difference - Then using this mass I will do the same again for accuracy - I will change the water and wait until the thermometer reaches room temperatures before starting again - I will do this twice for each alkane. My fair will be safe because I will use safety glasses as well as being carefully whilst using a flame. Alkane Mass Before Mass After Mass Difference Temp. Before Temp After Temp Difference Water Volume (cm�) Time (min.) Pentane 92.60 91.58 1.02 20 37 17 50 1.00 91.58 90.32 1.26 20 39 19 50 1.00 Hexane 84.98 84.55 0.43 23 34 11 50 1.00 84.55 84.14 0.41 24 38 14 50 1.00 Heptane ...read more.

Conclusion

On the second test for Nonane the temperature rose only 21 degrees and on the first it rose 30 degrees. I suggest that the anomalous was the first test when it rose 30 degrees. The reason for this anomalous result was most likely the timing because the temperature has risen a lot. I think my results are quite reliable because I took them myself and there was no place for a technical problem. Also they are reliable because my results show a lot of consistency because of the plan that I used. My procedure was not very suitable because it did demonstrate a linear relationship. Although the investigation was very simple and safe I could improve it by carrying out more tests on each alkane for more accuracy and I could also do more pilot test before the real investigation. Also using more accurate scales and thermometers would help with accuracy. I could extend this test by testing more alkanes and timing them for longer. ?? ?? ?? ?? Adam Rome Page 1 4/23/2007 ...read more.

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