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Alternative Energy Research Essay

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´╗┐Alternative Energy ________________ The role of Alternative Sources of Energy in the World?s Energy Economy Makrand Gupta X ? C 02-09-2011 ________________ Today, fossil fuels provide more than 85% of the energy consumed by the world. All fossil fuels are nothing but different forms of hydrocarbons which constitute of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). The study of these carbon compounds is called Organic Chemistry. Petroleum or ?Crude? Oil as it is more commonly known is also a mixture of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are of two major categories, Saturated (Alkanes) and Unsaturated (Alkenes). ?Saturated? means that no more atoms can be added to the compound. Unsaturated compounds contain a double bond which can be broken down to add more atoms to the hydrocarbon. Upon complete combustion of any organic compound, only two products are given out, Water and Carbon Dioxide, but under incomplete combustion, the products are unpredictable and potentially hazardous. The more the number of Carbon atoms in the molecule, the higher number of Hydrogen atoms present. They can be calculated using the formula [C (n) H (2n+2)] for Alkanes and [C (n) H (2n)] for Alkenes. With increasing number of carbon atoms, the molecular mass of the compound increases. In alkanes, the viscosity, volatility and flammability increases as we go down the series and vice-versa for alkenes. Due to their highly volatile and flammable nature, hydrocarbon fuels are difficult to manage and need extra careful handling. All products of petroleum are either alkanes or cycloalkanes. ...read more.


When the two surfaces are connected through an external load, electricity flows. One PV cell is the basic building block of a PV system. Individual cells can vary in size from about 0.5 inches to about 4 inches across. Although, one cell only produces 1 or 2 watts (which quiet a small quantity as compared to 50 watt light bulbs), they can be connected together into modules which can be further connected into arrays and arrays can be further networked into power plants. The number of modules/arrays can vary depending on the energy needs. The performance of a PV array is depends on the intensity of sunlight available. Climatic conditions (such as clouds or fog) have a direct impact on the efficiency of a PV array. The efficiency of most available PV modules ranges from 5% to 15. The success of PV technology, paved the path for its usage today. These days, the most basic application is in calculators and wrist watches. More complicated systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment, and even provide electricity to our homes. PV cells are similar to conventional batteries. They generate direct current (DC), which is generally used for small electronic equipment. For commercial applications, it must be converted to alternating current (AC) using inverters, solid state devices that convert DC power to AC.[2] [3] ________________ ________________ ________________ Over the next fifty years, the demand for energy will continue to increase rapidly whereas the fossil fuel reserves will continue to decline until exhaustion. ...read more.


Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=world+renewable+energy+potential&um=1&hl=en&sa=X&biw=1366&bih=688&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=P_FTyMCBdgLbuM:&imgrefurl=http://bigthink.com/ideas/37727&docid=WMmwcuyBLLApiM&w=9500&h=3800&ei=5qVfTuDzC87xrQeE25yqDw&zoom=1>. "Google Images." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=sunniest-places-in-the-world2.jpg&hl=en&sa=G&biw=1366&bih=688&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=UWtu82CYNAFqAM:&imgrefurl=http://pointfocus.com/images/charts/&docid=VUdDLb6CMWSYjM&w=1437&h=921&ei=mKZfTtjrMMimrAeq8t2gDw&zoom=1>. "International Energy Outlook 2010 - Highlights." U.S. Energy Information Administration. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <>. "International Petroleum (Oil) Production ." U.S. Energy Information . N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2011. <www.eia.gov/emeu/international/oilproduction.html>. "OECD 50." OECD Country Websites. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Sept. 2011. <www.oecd.org/countrieslist/0,3351,en_33873108_33844430_1_1_1_1_1,00.html>. "Oil reserves - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_reserves#OPEC_countries>. Potter, Seth, and New York University. "SOLAR ENERGY." Formal Reasoning Group . N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Sept. 2011. <http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/solar.html>. "Statistical Review of World Energy 2011 | BP." BP Global | BP. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=7500&contentId=7068481>. "Renewable Solar." energy KIDS U.S. Energy Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <>. Page of ________________ [1] "Renewable Solar." energy KIDS U.S. Energy Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <> [2] "Renewable Solar." energy KIDS U.S. Energy Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <> [3] "Statistical Review of World Energy 2011 | BP." BP Global | BP. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=7500&contentId=7068481>. [4] OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States) "OECD 50." OECD Country Websites. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Sept. 2011. <www.oecd.org/countrieslist/0,3351,en_33873108_33844430_1_1_1_1_1,00.html>. [5] "Energy Outlook 2030 | Statistical Review 2011 | BP." BP Global | BP. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037134&contentId=7068677>. ...read more.

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