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An experiment to investigate the amount of sulphuric acid there is in a solution

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Introduction

An experiment to investigate the amount of sulphuric acid there is in a solution Planning Aim: The aim of this investigation is to determine the concentration of acid rain by titrating the solution sodium carbonate. Apparatus: * Solid anhydrous sodium carbonate * Sulphuric acid (acid rain) * 250 cm � volumetric flask * 25 cm � bulb pipette * 250 cm � conical flask * burette * small filter funnel * Weighing bottle * Glass rod * 100 cm � beakers (3) * Tit pipette * 25 cm � measuring cylinder * Distilled water * Balance * Methyl orange * Pipette pump * White tile * Clamp stand The method that I will be using to find out how much acid there is in a solution is titration. This is because in titration, one solution is added to another, in order to determine how much the two solutions have reacted with each other. It is them possible to calculate the concentration of one solution if the other has a know concentration. In this investigation I have to find out the concentration of the acid. As a result the solution with the known concentration has to be the sodium carbonate. The sodium carbonate will be added from the burette to the acid rain, which will be in the conical flask, in order to determine what concentration of acid rain reacting with a known concentration of sodium carbonate. ...read more.

Middle

Then allow the reading to stabilize. If you add to much sodium carbonate take great care removing it using the spatula. If you accidentally drop any of tit around the balance remove it. Then put the 2.65g of sodium carbonate into a 100cm � beaker of distilled water and stir it using a glass rod. Avoid splashing when stirring. Make sure that all of the substance is used in making the solution by washing the weighing bottle repeatedly several times until none of the substance is remaining on it. Transfer the washings to the beaker each time. Keep stirring the solution with a glass rod until all of the sodium carbonate has dissolved in the water. Once the entire solid has dissolved, rinse the glass rod with distilled water, in order to remove any of the solution that is still on it. After that transfer the solution in the beaker into the 250cm � volumetric flask using a small filter funnel to pour it out without any spillage. Keep pouring the solution until it is a few centimetres away from the graduation mark, then fill slowly using a tit pipette until the bottom of the meniscus is level with the graduation mark. It is important that you read the volumetric flask at eye level with the bottom of the solution's meniscus and take the reading from this point to avoid any inaccurate reading of the meniscus. ...read more.

Conclusion

Wait a few seconds for the liquid to leave the bulb pipette. The conical flask is place on a white tile under the burette. The white tile makes it easier to see the end-point of colour change. Place the conical flask centrally on the white tile. Add 1-2 drops of methyl orange indicator. Turn on the burette tap, while swirling the flask at the same time. The end point of the titration should be when the two solutions have reacted without neither in excess. In order to achieve this, stop when the indicator changes colour to a red/orange colour. This red/orange tinge indicates an excess of sodium carbonate and therefore the end of the titration. A single drop of the alkali could being about this change, so add the solution from the burette to the acid rain drop by drop. Measure the new meniscus reading. The volume dispensed is the difference between the two readings. Conclusion: The plan I have devised is likely to provide precise and reliable results because the burette, pipettes and beakers are washed with the solution that is going in them before using them. This is because if water is in the vessels it would dilute the solution. If acid is present it would react with the alkali making its concentration lower. Therefore a bigger volume is used making the final concentration higher. * Minimum drops of indicator is added. ...read more.

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