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An experiment to show how the amount of zinc oxide produced is affected by the amount of calamine used.

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Introduction

Planning Aim: In this experiment I plan to experiment how the amount of zinc oxide produced is affected by the amount of calamine used. Hypothesis: I predict that the more calamine used the greater the amount of zinc oxide produced. This is because the equation of the reaction must have an equal amount on each side. The equation is ZnCO� ZnO+CO�. From this it can be seen that for every atom of zinc contained in the calamine it produces the same number of atoms in zinc oxide. Therefore I hypothesise that there is a direct positive correlation and would expect the graph to show a straight line In a previous experiment where copper carbonate was obtained from malachite the results showed that as the more malachite was used the more product was produced. The relationship between the mass of malachite used and the amount of copper oxide obtained was proportional. Malachite and calamine are next to each other in the periodic table and therefore are alike so I predict that the more calamine used the more zinc oxide will be produced. The theoretical conversion graph also supports this idea. Therfore i think that the relationship between the calamine used and zinc oxide produced will also be proportional. Using the theoretical conversion graph I can predict that from every gram of calamine heated about 0.6g of zinc oxide will be produced. This is evident later on in my coursework. The graph I expect to obtain is similar to the one I have drawn below. ...read more.

Middle

Weight after 2 minutes (g) Change in Mass Mass of Zinc Oxide 30.16 32.16 2 31.24 31.24 0.92 1/08 29.49 31.99 2.5 31.09 31.09 0.9 1.6 29.24 32.24 3 30.94 30.94 1.3 1.7 29.76 33.26 3.5 32.06 32.06 1.2 2.3 30.24 34.24 4 32.74 32.74 1.5 2.5 Experiment Two After taking 5 different readings, we decded to repeat the experiment so we could take an average of two readings in order to create a more accurate visual representation in the form of graph. The second set of reults is below. Evaluating Evidence Theoretical conversion chart: ZnCO� ZnO+CO�(already balanced) One mole of ZnCO� gives 1 mole of ZnO (C=12, O=16, Zn=65) ZnCO� ZnO 65+12+48=125 65+16=81 One gram of ZnCO� gives 81/125=0.648 grams of ZnO Mass of calamine(g) Calculation Mass of zinc oxide(g) 2.0 Multiply by 0.648 1.3 2.5 Multiply by 0.648 1.62 3.0 Multiply by 0.648 1.94 3.5 Multiply by 0.648 2.268 4.0 Multiply by 0.648 2.591 To compare the theoretical conversion chart with the results I gained I will work the percentage yield. This is done by taking the actual amount gained dividing it by the expected amount (theoretical) and times by 100. Here are the percentage yields I worked out. Mass of Calamine used Mass of Zinc Oxide Weight of Zinc Oxide Produced (g) Percentage yield (%) 2 1.3 1.43 1.08 2.5 1.62 1.8 1.6 3 1.94 2.19 1.7 3.5 2.268 2.51 2.3 4 2.591 2.92 2.5 Mass of Calamine (g) Predicted amount of ZnO to be obtained (g) ...read more.

Conclusion

the same for two consecutive weightings, the calamine could have needed a higher temperature applied to it to fully complete the reaction. This is why I reapeated the experiment and then achieved a new set of results which were all below the the theoretical amounts. The mineral wool, (used to stop small particles of zinc oxide escaping with the CO2) could have also stopped other matter in the calamine (which is not used for producing zinc oxide) from escaping. I think my results were also quite reliable as there wasn't very much scatter on my graph, all the points were close to my line of best fit. I also believe my results were reliable as the differences between the results in the first experiment and the results in the second were quite small. An exception to this was the experiment for 3g of calamine in experiment 1 the amount of zinc oxide obtained was 2.19 and in experiment 2 the amount obtained was only 1.7, a difference of 0.5g. If I could re-do this experiment I would like to repeat the whole experiment for a third time or at least do a third test using 3g of calamine, this would improve the accuracy of my results as it would help determine anomalous results, which would let me have the choice to not include it in my averages results. This reslut wasn't necessary anomoulous when considered as an average of the two experiments but it was the closest I got to having an anomolie. GCSE Chemistry Obtaining Zinc Oxide From Calamine Roy Vivasi 11PB ...read more.

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