• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

An Experiment to show the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Experiment to show the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate Introduction Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate ? Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) ? CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H20(l) In this experiment we will be investigating the variables that can affect the speed of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. During this experiment carbon dioxide is produced. This is what we are going to use to record the speed of reaction, for the faster the reaction the faster carbon dioxide is produced. Variables A variable affects the rate of reaction between a number of chemicals. For a reaction to occur the particles have to collide with sufficient energy to break the bonds between them. This amount of energy needed is called Activation energy. In a reaction, only the particles with energies above the Activation Energy will cause a reaction. The different variables that could be used are: ? the surface area of the calcium carbonate ? the temperature of the hydrochloric acid ? whether a catalyst is used or not ? the concentration of the hydrochloric acid Temperature This is one of the most effective ways of speeding up the rate of a reaction. From heating the chemical you are transferring energy into the particles. When particles do collide, they are more likely to react, rather than just bounce off each other, if they are moving faster. When the particles have more energy they collide more often and with more force with the other chemical. With more collisions and with a larger force it is more likely that the collisions will be successful. This means that the rate of reaction will be greater. This diagram shows the change in heat can change the rate of the reaction. The first curve on the graph shows a reaction when the chemicals involved are of a low temperature. For a reaction to occur the particles have to collide with sufficient energy to break the bonds between them. ...read more.

Middle

To mix up a concentration of 1.5mole you just measure out only 10cm3 of the 1mole concentration, 10 cm3 of the 2mole acid and mix these together. This creates 20 cm3 of a 1.5 mole concentration. Preliminary Work To find the best mass for the chemicals and equipment used in the experiment we undertook preliminary work to get an idea of the reaction and how much of the chemicals was needed and produced. This affected the: ? the size of measuring cylinders that we used for each experiment ? the size of the conical flask we used for each experiment ? the amount of acid we used for each experiment ? the amount of calcium carbonate chips we used for each experiment We started by using 20cm3 of acid and 1.5 grams of calcium carbonate chips. We realised that if we were measuring a small amount of acid each time we would need a 100cm3-measuring cylinder (the smallest there is). We started the experiment and soon realised the 250cm3 measuring cylinder we had chosen to contain the chemicals produced was the right size for a lot of carbon dioxide was produced. We decided to get a good range of results we should aim to have the first 70cm3 of Carbon dioxide produced quickly and then to slow down. We could do this by increasing or decreasing the amount of chemicals used. With these measurements of acid and calcium carbonate chips the experiment was slow through this period of time, and so we decided to increase the measurements. We tried 25cm3 of acid and 2.5 grams of chips. This time the reaction was too fast. We decreased the proportions and ended up with our perfect measurements that we used in each experiment: ? The size of measuring cylinders that we used for each experiment was a 250cm3 measuring cylinder for the collecting cylinder and 100cm3 measuring cylinder for measuring the acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would mean the rate would have doubled. I predicted if the concentration was halved the amount of successful collisions would also be halved and so the rate of the reaction would be half. This meant that if I plot all the concentrations on a graph against their rates then the graph would have a straight line running diagonally through the graph. Now that I have completed his investigation I have plotted the real 'rates against concentration graph' I can see that my prediction was correct. The line of best fit for this graph runs right through the graph. If I had increased the scale of the 'concentration' axis to be the same length as the rate axis the line of best fit would have run at a 45o angle through the graph. This shows that my prediction was correct and that if the concentration was doubled the rate also doubled. Evaluation I think our experiment went quite well for I could see an obvious pattern in our results. This meant that I could understand what was happening in the experiment and why certain things happened when they did. For example I now understand how concentration of acid affects the rate of the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate. I predicted that if the concentration of hydrochloric acid were doubled the rate of reaction would also double. I predicted this because with a larger concentration of hydrochloric there will be more hydrochloric particles in the same mass of acid. This will mean there will be more collisions against the calcium carbonate particles. With more collisions there is a higher chance of successful collisions. With more successful collisions it is more likely that the collisions will create a reaction. This will mean that the rate of reaction will increase. With fewer particles of hydrochloric in the acid there will be less successful collisions in a given period of time so the speed of the reaction will decrease and so the rate of reaction will also decrease. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    We could have used a gas syringe instead of the measuring cylinder and plastic tub. This would mean that the carbon dioxide would have gone straight into the gas syringe instead of having to travel all the way up the measuring cylinder.

  2. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    35 34 32 28 30 18 19 18.5 75 35 39 37 35 31 33 20 21 20.5 80 39 47 43 37 34 35.5 22 22 22 85 42 50 46 39 37 38 23 24 23.5 90 45 52 48.5 40 41 40.5 25 27 26 95 49

  1. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    Time Volume of CO2(0.55g) Volume of CO2 (1g) Volume of HCl in cm� Volume of H2O in cm� 0 0 0 20 20 10 7 9 20 11 15 30 17 19 40 23 27 50 27 33 60 34 40 70 42 50 80 46 60 90 51 67 100 55 70 110 59 84 120 62

  2. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    Tom Fletcher. Guitarist and vocalist in McFly. How could I have forgotten that hours after I had met his band mate? I put my head down but I could feel each and every member of McFly's eyes on me. This was so not real.

  1. Prove that changing the surface area of calcium carbonate chips, either by increasing or ...

    Naturally, the more calcium carbonate used the more particles there are available to collide with the acid particles, and the faster the calcium carbonate reacts with the acid. The same goes with the amount of acid used the more particles you have, the more collisions can occur.

  2. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    * Calcium carbonate chips (small, medium and large) Diagram Safety There are numerous precautions that I will take to make the experiment a safe one. This experiment involves the handling of chemicals and glass, which are hazardous. Therefore, we need to be extremely careful when handling them.

  1. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    make sure the whole measurement is put in the conical flask pour mass of calcium carbonate into conical flask immediately start the stop watch observe how long it takes for the calcium carbonate to dissolve wash conical flask for accuracy repeat the following steps a further 2 times for each

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    As you can see in this table the reading of the gas went even faster than the first experiment we did because this time the reading of the gas jumped to 42 from just 10 seconds and then stayed at 54 at 60 seconds till 120 where we ended the timing.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work