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An Experiment to show the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate

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Introduction

An Experiment to show the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate Introduction Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate ? Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) ? CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H20(l) In this experiment we will be investigating the variables that can affect the speed of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. During this experiment carbon dioxide is produced. This is what we are going to use to record the speed of reaction, for the faster the reaction the faster carbon dioxide is produced. Variables A variable affects the rate of reaction between a number of chemicals. For a reaction to occur the particles have to collide with sufficient energy to break the bonds between them. This amount of energy needed is called Activation energy. In a reaction, only the particles with energies above the Activation Energy will cause a reaction. The different variables that could be used are: ? the surface area of the calcium carbonate ? the temperature of the hydrochloric acid ? whether a catalyst is used or not ? the concentration of the hydrochloric acid Temperature This is one of the most effective ways of speeding up the rate of a reaction. From heating the chemical you are transferring energy into the particles. When particles do collide, they are more likely to react, rather than just bounce off each other, if they are moving faster. When the particles have more energy they collide more often and with more force with the other chemical. With more collisions and with a larger force it is more likely that the collisions will be successful. This means that the rate of reaction will be greater. This diagram shows the change in heat can change the rate of the reaction. The first curve on the graph shows a reaction when the chemicals involved are of a low temperature. For a reaction to occur the particles have to collide with sufficient energy to break the bonds between them. ...read more.

Middle

To mix up a concentration of 1.5mole you just measure out only 10cm3 of the 1mole concentration, 10 cm3 of the 2mole acid and mix these together. This creates 20 cm3 of a 1.5 mole concentration. Preliminary Work To find the best mass for the chemicals and equipment used in the experiment we undertook preliminary work to get an idea of the reaction and how much of the chemicals was needed and produced. This affected the: ? the size of measuring cylinders that we used for each experiment ? the size of the conical flask we used for each experiment ? the amount of acid we used for each experiment ? the amount of calcium carbonate chips we used for each experiment We started by using 20cm3 of acid and 1.5 grams of calcium carbonate chips. We realised that if we were measuring a small amount of acid each time we would need a 100cm3-measuring cylinder (the smallest there is). We started the experiment and soon realised the 250cm3 measuring cylinder we had chosen to contain the chemicals produced was the right size for a lot of carbon dioxide was produced. We decided to get a good range of results we should aim to have the first 70cm3 of Carbon dioxide produced quickly and then to slow down. We could do this by increasing or decreasing the amount of chemicals used. With these measurements of acid and calcium carbonate chips the experiment was slow through this period of time, and so we decided to increase the measurements. We tried 25cm3 of acid and 2.5 grams of chips. This time the reaction was too fast. We decreased the proportions and ended up with our perfect measurements that we used in each experiment: ? The size of measuring cylinders that we used for each experiment was a 250cm3 measuring cylinder for the collecting cylinder and 100cm3 measuring cylinder for measuring the acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would mean the rate would have doubled. I predicted if the concentration was halved the amount of successful collisions would also be halved and so the rate of the reaction would be half. This meant that if I plot all the concentrations on a graph against their rates then the graph would have a straight line running diagonally through the graph. Now that I have completed his investigation I have plotted the real 'rates against concentration graph' I can see that my prediction was correct. The line of best fit for this graph runs right through the graph. If I had increased the scale of the 'concentration' axis to be the same length as the rate axis the line of best fit would have run at a 45o angle through the graph. This shows that my prediction was correct and that if the concentration was doubled the rate also doubled. Evaluation I think our experiment went quite well for I could see an obvious pattern in our results. This meant that I could understand what was happening in the experiment and why certain things happened when they did. For example I now understand how concentration of acid affects the rate of the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate. I predicted that if the concentration of hydrochloric acid were doubled the rate of reaction would also double. I predicted this because with a larger concentration of hydrochloric there will be more hydrochloric particles in the same mass of acid. This will mean there will be more collisions against the calcium carbonate particles. With more collisions there is a higher chance of successful collisions. With more successful collisions it is more likely that the collisions will create a reaction. This will mean that the rate of reaction will increase. With fewer particles of hydrochloric in the acid there will be less successful collisions in a given period of time so the speed of the reaction will decrease and so the rate of reaction will also decrease. ...read more.

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