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An Experiment to study the affect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium.

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Introduction

An Experiment to study the affect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Aim To study the affect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Background- The speed of a reaction is based on four factors, temperature, concentration, catalysts and surface area. The faster the particles of each substance collide, the faster the reaction will take place. This is due to the collision theory. If you heat up the two or more reactants, then the particles will gain more energy and will collide with other particles more frequently and harder. When I say harder I mean with a lot more kinetic energy that would have been transferred from the thermal energy applied. A catalyst will lower the activation energy, needed for a reaction to take place. This means less energy is needed for the reaction to start taking place. A larger surface area makes the reaction speed up because there is more area for the particles available to have a collision with the large surface area.. This is because there are more sides of the solid particles to collide against so the probability of collisions and therefore the speed of the reaction is increased. This diagram shows that the smaller particles have more surface area for the reactants to collide with whereas the large particle has most of the substance inside the particle walls The last aspect is increased concentration. ...read more.

Middle

To make sure that this test is fair, we need to do many things. We need to check the measuring on water and hydrochloric acid carefully and at eye level due to the fact that liquid looks like it is a different amount, depending where you look at it. Fair Testing Make sure that the concentration of acid is the required amount and adds up to 100cm3 Make sure the magnesium is cut to 2cm each time so that the variable remains constant Make sure that you place the bung over the conical flask as soon as possible to stop any gas escaping. We also need to check that we have cut the magnesium accurately to 2cm. We also have to time the reaction as soon as the magnesium touches the water until 10cm3 of gas has filled up the measuring tube. Before the actual experiment we have to make sure that there is no air in the measuring tube, as this will make the reading of the results harder as you won't know when 10cm3 of hydrogen has been collected. Results Concentration of acid (mols/dm3) Test1 (in seconds) Test2 (in seconds) Test3 (in seconds) Average (in seconds) 2.0 5.50s 4.07s 4.87s 4.87s 1.8 10.68s 9.08s 11.17s 10.31s 1.6 10.97s 11.46s 10.62s 11.01s 1.4 11.20s 12.81s 11.91s 11.97s 1.2 13.19s 13.56s 13.98s 13.58s 1.0 21.37s 21.09s 19.31s 20.59s 0.8 29.50s 28.60s 31.53s 29.88s 0.6 43.50s 42.47s 43.90s 43.28s 0.4 97.00s 89.00s 85.00s ...read more.

Conclusion

I would also compare the results to see if the hydrochloric acid reacts slower or faster at the same concentration but reacting against other elements. This will help to determine the nature of reaction. Such as the how the number of electrons in the outer shell has an affect on the speed of the reaction. There were three results in the middle of the experiment (1.6,1.4 and 1.2), which are off the predicted pattern. This may be because we used a different roll of magnesium. This roll was (unbeknown to us) cleaned and rubbed down. This exposed the magnesium surface to the acid, there fore increasing the rate of reaction due to the impurities being rubbed off of the magnesium so the magnesium could react with the acid straight away. With an extra layer of impurities, the reaction will take longer as there is more for the acid to do to get to the magnesium and for the reaction to start. The rest of the experiment we used uncleaned magnesium as we thought that if we rubbed the magnesium down to get rid of the "dirt" on the surface then we may decrease the amount of magnesium and make it thinner. This happens due to the fact that there are more frequent collisions between the reactants, hydrochloric acid and magnesium. This is illustrated in the diagram below. Russell Robertson Chemistry coursework 11MM ...read more.

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