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An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AlbinaBekteshi Chemistry coursework. Albina Bekteshi ________________ Class: Science- Chemistry Coursework ________________ An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction ________________ ________________ Due: March 14th, 2012 ________________ Contents Introduction Variables Equipment Preliminary experiment The results for the preliminary experiment. Evaluation of preliminary Justification of Method: Main experiment – changing the surface area. Results for surface area. Graphs for surface area. Conclusion Main experiment – changing concentration. Tables for concentration. Graphs for concentration. Scientific explanation Evaluation of Range Bars: Gradients Surface area Concentration - Evaluation Evaluation of procedures Evaluating data Reliability of Conclusion Introduction The rate of a reaction is a measure of how slow or fast the reaction happens. If the chemical reaction is too slow, it would be harder to see a reaction. The rate is measured from the change, which happens in a single unit of time. To find out the rate of reaction one needs to: 1. Look how quickly a product is formed 2. Increase the concentration 3. Work out the collision theory 4. Increase the surface area, and 5. Increase the temperature There are several ways to measure the rate of reaction. You can measure the rate at which a product is formed; or you can measure the rate at which a reactant is used up. The PH, concentration of reactants, surface area, and enzymes, such as the use of catalysts, are all factors which may change or affect the rate of a reaction. I have decided to change the mass of the calcium chips, and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, as we have adequate equipment to carry out this experiment safely and accurately. The reaction between hydrochloric acid, and calcium carbonate (marble chips) is one example of which carbon dioxide gas is produced: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ï CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) In this reaction, carbon dioxide is the easiest substance to measure. ...read more.

Middle

Time Repeat1 (ml) Repeat 2 (ml) Repeat 3 (ml) Repeat 4 (ml) Repeat5 (ml) Averages 10 15 12 13 14 13 13.4 20 32 22 25 26 23 25.6 30 50 32 37 40 35 38.8 40 70 43 51 52 50 53.2 50 85 55 70 65 59 66.8 60 98 65 80 72 70 77 70 99 75 85 90 80 85.8 80 100 85 95 98 91 93.8 90 100 92 98 99 100 97.8 100 100 98 98 100 100 99.2 110 100 100 100 100 100 100 120 100 100 100 100 100 100 Temp = 24ËC 24ËC 24ËC 24ËC 24ËC Evaluating the results for small chips of calcium carbonate Table 4 shows the surface area of small calcium chips. We did this by using 1.5g of small calcium chips and 30ml of volume of 2M hydrochloric acid. There does not seem to be any outliers; a good start for the first results. As you can see we repeated the experiment 5 times to result precision. From the Table 4, we can see that the volume of gas produced increased fast towards the average of 110. From this we were keen to find out if the medium calcium chips made a more noticeable difference. Table 5. Evaluating results for medium chips of calcium carbonate Calcium Medium Chips 1.5g Hydrochloric Acid 2M 30ml Volume Of Gas Produced (ml) Time Repeat1 (ml) Repeat 2 (ml) Repeat 3 (ml) Repeat 4 (ml) Repeat 5(ml) Averages 10 10 9 9 13 12 10 20 15 14 15 21 10 15 30 27 20 21 29 21 20.75 40 28 26 27 37 27 27 50 35 33 34 46 36 34.5 60 43 40 40 55 42 41.25 70 50 47 48 64 52 49.25 80 57 55 55 73 57 56 90 65 61 62 81 63 62.75 100 71 68 69 89 71 96.75 110 79 75 75 95 79 77 120 85 81 82 100 83 82.75 Temp= 24ËC 24ËC 24ËC 24ËC 24ËC Outliers Evaluating results for medium chips of calcium carbonate. ...read more.

Conclusion

This allowed us to see the affect which the surface area and concentration has on the rate of reaction. In my graphs for both surface area and concentration, they had small range bars and not any large ones; this makes me proud of my graphs as it shows that our graph has excellent reliability, and that we did the reading precise, which made the way we calculated the averages correct. This makes our whole experiment for both surface area and concentration accurate and reliable. My investigation is reliable as my results hardly had scatter making my results reliable, and my range bars were close to each other, which made my average more accurate. My investigation is also done right as my method was a success, as indicated by my use of equipment within well standard and precise, i.e. using a gas syringe with asuitable scale makes it easier for us to read the exact volume of carbon dioxide being produced in cm3. Our investigation is also reliable as we carried out the experiment for 4 different surface areas (small, medium, large chips and powder) and 4 different concentrations (0.5M, 1M, 1.5M, 2M). This gives me a wide range of data. The other reason why our investigation is reliable, is we used the same equipment for every experiment we carried out. We also ensure that the equipment is not damaged or broken, and has changed from my original equipment, or uses different accurate measurement units. If I kept using different equipment, it may have guided me to have to correct it each time. This could lhave ead to human error. Also, the variability in precision units could create outliers in my data, making it unreliable. What I have also done to give me a reliable data is to have washed out the conical flask every time I start a new experiment with acid, to stop the build of the calcium carbonate. Had I not done so, my results would have changed as there would have been different amounts of the CaCO3 in each experiment. pg. ...read more.

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