• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16

An investigation in to the effect of temperature on the release of pigment from beet root tissue

Extracts from this document...


Nadia Mohamad Rom AT1 Practical investigation An investigation in to the effect of temperature on the release of pigment from beet root tissue Introduction and Hypothesis I think that the increase of the temperature on the beetroot will affect the diffusion of the colour dye in the beetroot. The colour dye is held together by the membrane structure and this maintains the red rich colour in the beetroot. I believe that with the increase of temperature applied onto the plasma membrane, the structure of the membrane will become damaged and the membranes of the protein will eventually denature. Scientists know that cell membrane have the following general characteristics: - * 40% Lipid * 0 - 10% carbohydrate (as prosthetic groups) * 50 - 60% protein. You can see from above that proteins are major constituents of membranes. In membranes there are intrinsic and extrinsic proteins. Intrinsic membrane proteins completely pass through the lipid layers. They have a variety of functions, though many are 'carrier' proteins and channels that assist with transporting molecules through the membrane. These proteins have both an extra and intracellular part. Extrinsic membrane proteins are embedded in the outer phospholipid layer. They are fixed to one side of the bilayer or one depth of the bilayer. They can often act as chemical receptors for the cells. The majority of the proteins in the membranes are globular. This will mean that the 3 dimensional shape of the tertiary structured protein held together by the hydrogen bonds can eventually be broken if high enough temperatures are applied onto them - this is called denaturisation of proteins. The most common temperature for proteins to denature in eukaryotes are at around 40 degrees Celsius. However I am working specifically on beetroot, it is known that proteins in plants are more likely to withstand higher temperatures and therefore denature at a higher temperature. So I would expect for the proteins in beetroot to denature at about around 50 degrees Celsius. ...read more.


However this meant that I would run the risk of getting a temperature that would have been lower than 20 degrees Celsius. Anything lower than what is considered the normal beetroot temperature could have damaging effects to the membranes. I would be testing on the effects of how the decrease of temperature would effect the release of red pigment, instead of the increase of temperature, so I had to settle for 24 degrees Celsius. I will take note that the 24 degrees Celsius temperature range was the 1st temperature range that i had conducted tests on. This was mainly because I could get the approximate required temperature the most quickly, it was not necessary for me to wait for it to heat up first. Unfortunately there were further problems encountered with the testing of this particular temperature range. The problem was that whilst I was testing the test fluids onto the colorimeter, there was a member of the sixth form group that wanted to use the same colorimeter. For the third reading of the test fluid, I had about approx. 10 -13 seconds difference from the first and second readings taken from the test fluids of the same temperature range. What I have also done during the preparation of the beetroot pieces is to cut an extra 6 pieces as a control giving me the choice of the reliable looking, same sized beetroot pieces. I was able to do this because of the extra space from the beetroot that I was able to gain more uniform cylinders. Whilst actually cutting the beetroot pieces, I discovered that it was more easier for me to cut out the pieces into the required length after having cut each uniform cylinder. I had first cut the pieces into 1cm in length pieces, then I had cut the 1cm in length pieces into 2 1/2 cm pieces using a ruler to measure it. ...read more.


It was of the same size, although not exactly of the same weight, the same amount of surface area did come into contact with the same amount of water and at the same amount of time given. Although I did not weigh the pieces to ensure that the mass were the same, the beetroot pieces were all cut using the same way - through cutting sideways of the beetroot to obtain uniform cylinders- it was likely to have the same composition of cells. Though it was possible, altough rare that they would be exceptions, hence causing anomalous results. If I was to repeat the experiment again and start to consider weighing the pieces, I would have to use specialised weighing equipment. There would also be the problem of what to do if the pieces' weights did not match one another - could it be that I would have to cut a bit of the piece, hence making the surface area contact with the water to later be different and unfair during the tests. If I were to make further improvements of the investigation I would have more than one person working in my group for the investigation and would also give my myself more time. I would have also like more water baths so I could have more temperature ranges to work from. This will enable me to analyse more precisely what would have happened between the temperatures that I had done. It could have been that between 60 degrees Celsius and 65 Celsius, the liquification of lipids had actually blocked the route of the release of red pigment a little, and a decrease of light absorption would have been evident. I would have also have liked to perform more than 3 tests - say about 5 at least, with enough colorimeters and 'hands' to make it fair, and would get a very accurate mean of results from. As this would prove that the results obtained are most likely not obtained due to an external factor. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does temperature affect the permeability of a cell membrane in a beetroot.

    4 star(s)

    is used to cut the cylinders 1cm long measured with a ruler. This will give them the same surface area. Apparatus: Apparatus Used for Fresh beetroot The pigment anthocyanin. Scalpel Cutting of the beetroot. Into 1cm long cylinders. White tile Cutting the beetroot on.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Core practical - Why does the colour leak out of cooked beetroot? Investigating the ...

    4 star(s)

    Repeat this until all solutions have an individual reading. Results: Table showing how readings from colorimeter vary with temperature. Temperature �c Absorbance % 0 0.00 10 0.08 20 0.11 30 0.29 40 0.32 50 0.40 60 0.56 70 0.64 Conclusions: After collecting and correlating the results, I have come to

  1. Peer reviewed

    Effect of Temperature on Beetroot Membrane Proteins

    4 star(s)

    This may have an effect on the actual temperature inside them, and could mean a deviation from the originally planned temperatures. To get one of the boiling tubes to a temperature of 0�C I will be using a basin containing a test tube rack in which the boiling tubes will

  2. Photosynthesis Investigation

    The light energy is trapped as chemical energy in the glucose molecule. Plants can use any source of light rays, but the source that does not run out is sunlight. Artificial light is used in glasshouses when extra light is needed.

  1. How Temperature Effects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes

    structure and as the protein function is dependent upon this, it becomes useless. This malformation in the protein also increases the fluidity of the membrane as the protein is rejected by the cell when denatured and so creates gaps in the membrane structure allowing anthocyanin to diffuse out.

  2. the effect of temperature on membrane permeability

    This is the phospholipid bilayer. The water around and within the compartments formed by the phospholipid bilayers is also crammed with protein (the cytoplasm). When something is heated, it is given energy. Molecules start to spin and vibrate faster. Thus, the water will expand. This will have a disruptive effect on any membrane in its path.

  1. Investigation into the diffusion of pigment from the cell membrane of Beetroot.

    There will be tests every 10? between 10?-80? (including 10? and 80?) Colorimeter - To measure colour change and make it quantitative so it can be plotted. Cork Borer - To extract the same sized/section beetroot to allow accurate cutting. Independent and Dependant Variables The independent variable is the temperature.

  2. The factors affecting the rate of permeability in a cell membrane?

    Protein molecules exist in membranes to help (or facilitate) the diffusion of these substances. * Channel Proteins - are transmembrane proteins that form tunnels, or pores, through the bilayer for water soluble molecules. Some channels are open all the time, others open when triggered by the presence of a chemical such as hormone.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work