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An investigation into how changing one variable influences the rate of reaction between marble chips and dilute hydrochloric acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry coursework Planning Section This experiment is an investigation into how changing one variable influences the rate of reaction between marble chips and dilute hydrochloric acid. When dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with marble chips the following reaction occurs: CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 List of variables which could affect the rate. * Surface area: The bigger the surface area of the marble chips means that there will be more CaCO3 particles which means there will be a higher rate of reaction because there is a higher possibility of acid particles hitting the marble chips. * Temperature: The higher the temperature the bigger the reaction takes will be when the temperature is higher the acid particles have more energy which means they hit the marble chips harder, therefore the reaction takes place faster. * Concentration: The higher the concentration of Hydrochloric acid the higher the rate of reaction will be because there are more acid particles, which means there is a higher possibility that there will be collisions between the hydrochloric acid particles and marble chips. A list of variables which I will attempt to keep the same. * Temperature: I will try to keep this constant by having a thermometer in my solution and always checking that it is at room temperature. ...read more.

Middle

Method. * Set up apparatus as shown below. * Weigh 5 grams of marble chips and put them in the conical flask. * Make the concentration of HCl and H20, first it will be 50cm3 of HCl and 0cm3 of H20. * Start the stopwatch. * Wait until 30 seconds has passed then pour in the solution and time how long it takes for 20cm3 of water to be displaced. * Take 30 seconds off the time to get the true time. * Fill in table. * Repeat the experiment three times using the same concentration. * After you have done that repeat the experiment using the concentrations: 40cm3 HCl + 10cm3 H20 then 30cm3 HCl + 20cm3 H20 then 20cm3 HCl + 30cm3 H20 then 10cm3 HCl + 40cm3 H20. The apparatus I need are as follows: * 1 50cm3 measuring cylinders * 1 Tub * 1 Stopwatch * 1 Conical Flask * 1 Bung * 1 Top pan balance * 1 Burette Accuracy: To obtain the up most amount of accuracy I will get down to the same level as the burette while measuring the quantities of chemicals used. This will stop any misreads because of the angle I am standing at. I will make sure that my HCl and my H2O does not get contaminated. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation The evidence I collected I believe was quite accurate. I only had one anomaly which was in test 2 of the concentration: HCl: 40 + H20: 10. This probably occurred because the bung was not secure in the conical flask which may have led to contamination or leakages of gas. In my opinion there were flaws in the method of testing. There were too many things to do at the same time for example, I had to pour acid into the conical flask and secure the bung and I also had to put the end of the tube under the measuring cylinder. To overcome this flaw I believe it would be best to do the test in a group of at least five so the tasks can be shared. Another flaw was the difficulty of getting a precise reading for the displacement of gas, to combat this next time I will use a stand which would hold the measuring cylinder in place. The evidence is sufficient to support my conclusion. There was only one anomaly, this occurred because of the reasons above. Further work I could do to provide additional relevant evidence could be doing more concentrations like 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 molar etc. because it would be interesting to see if the results also follow the trend of my graph. Also I might obtain evidence to see how catalysts, temperature, or surface area affect the rate of reaction. Craig Smith 10TER 10L 1 ...read more.

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