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# An investigation into how changing one variable influences the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

An investigation into how changing one variable influences the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 Planning 1. List of variables which could affect the rate of reaction * Temperature: - Temperature will affect the rate of reaction because the higher the temperature of the solution of hydrochloric acid, water and marble chips, the more kinetic energy the presents particles will have and they will therefore collide with one another more and more successfully. * Mass of Marble Chips: - The mass of the marble chips could affect the rate of reaction because on average, if you increase the mass of the marble chips, you increase the amount of chips in there and will therefore increase the surface area of the present chips. An increased surface area could affect the rate of reaction because if the surface area is increased, the solution of hydrochloric acid and water will have more area to work on and would therefore have more reactions more quickly thereby increasing the rate of reaction. * Concentration of solution: - The concentration of the solution of distilled water and hydrochloric acid will affect the rate of reaction because the higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction because they are directly proportional to each other. ...read more.

Middle

* Fill the measuring cylinder to capacity by submerging it in the water in the trough and displacing the air in the cylinder with water by upturning it in the water until there are no air bubbles present. * Using your marker pen or elastic band place a mark around the 20cm� mark on the cylinder. * Measure out your desired quantities of acid and water solution into a 50cm� cylinder. Either 50cm� of acid; 40 cm� of acid and 10cm� of distilled water; 30cm� of acid and 20cm� of distilled water; 20cm� of acid and 30cm� of distilled water; 10cm� of acid and 40cm� of distilled water. * Start the stopwatch and let it run while making sure the apparatus is all in order. * When the stopwatch reaches 8 seconds add the hydrochloric acid and distilled water solution to the conical flask and quickly and firmly place the stopper into the top of the conical flask. * When 20cm� of gas has been collected, stop the stopwatch and record the time. Remove the stopper and wash out the conical flask and throw away the used chips. Repeat as many times as needed. 9. Quantities of chemicals used 50cm� of hydrochloric acid (2.0 molar) 40cm� of hydrochloric acid and 10cm� of distilled water (1.6 molar) ...read more.

Conclusion

This would give my results a good reliability and good, accurate, average. I would also extend the limits of my experiment and investigate more concentrations, in divisions of 5 instead of 10. (E.g. 25cm� Hydrochloric Acid and 25cm� Distilled Water). This would give me a more reliable line of best fit as I would have more points to plot on my graph. I would use a gas syringe instead of an upturned measuring cylinder because a gas syringe is infinitely more accurate and would simplify the whole process of having to make sure the plug is in tightly and the delivery tube is connected before starting the stopwatch. My Results Most of the points on my graph went through my line of best fit, however, there were 1 or 2 that did not, so I can't call it an exponential line. There are quite a few anomalies in my table that suggest that my results were unreliable and inaccurate. These could have happened for a number of reasons such as: * Some of the chips I used could have had some power or dust present on their surface, despite my attempts on cleaning them. * I could have taken too long on starting the stopwatch when I placed the plug in the top of the conical flask. * The upturned measuring cylinder could have been inaccurate, or not sitting level when I read off 20cm�. Ross Bowden Chemistry SC1 ...read more.

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