• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation into how concentration affects the rate of a chemical reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An investigation into how concentration affects the rate of a chemical reaction Aim To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction we will be reacting calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. To make this a fair test we will have to keep all variables the same except the one we are investigating. The products of the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid are calcium chloride and carbon dioxide. To measure the rate of reaction we will be measuring the volume of carbon dioxide produced. The equation for this reaction is: CaCo3 + 2HCL CaCL2 + H2O + CO2 Variables The variables that may have an affect on this experiment are: Size of marble chip- the size of the marble chip will affect our experiment because this dictates the surface area. The larger the surface area the more acid that will be in contact with the hydrochloric acid and able to react. Concentration of hydrochloric acid- this is the proportion of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Volume of acid- this will be the amount of hydrochloric acid that will be reacted with the marble chips. Catalysts- by weakening bonds these increase the rate of reaction by lowering activation energy a catalyst will not be used in this reaction, however. Mass of marble chips- The mass of the marble chips is a way of measuring the quantity of chips being used. Temperature- the temperature adds energy to the reaction an affects how quickly the particles move. ...read more.

Middle

this to put the cylinder of water upside down in so water does not spill Delivery tube- this will be used for the gas to travel down and will be useful because we will not have to hold the conical flask. Scales- this will be used to measure CaCO3 Stopwatch- this is needed to measure when the volume of gas needs to be recorded. Method In this investigation we will be recording the volume of gas every thirty seconds because this was a suitable time interval for finding a measurable change to take place. The time we will be measuring this experiment for is three minutes because this gave us enough data for us to draw an accurate graph and we would not have to wait too long to complete one experiment. This gave us time to repeat the experiment three times so we would have more accurate averages. We will be measuring the cylinder to the nearest cm� because this is how often the cylinder is marked so this is the most accurate we can get. The time will be measured to the nearest millisecond we will not be able to record the volume at exactly this time though so we will probably measure the time to a two second accuracy. To make the test a fair test we had to carry out the same method each time this is what we did. ...read more.

Conclusion

To solve this problem we could use a gas syringe but the problem with this is we could not test the higher volumes of gas, which would mean the range of results would be lower which would mean the pattern we got would be less obvious. The experiments were fair tests to a certain extent but there was a certain margin of error because the results recorded were only to the nearest cm� and the values of the controlled variables were not exact amounts so the may have been slightly differently each time which would have affected slightly the reliability of the results. This would have made little difference to the results though as the volume of gas was only measured to the nearest cm�. To find if the prediction was supported or to find if the reaction rate did slow down after the time progressed the experiment could be timed for longer than two minutes. This would also enable us to find weather the pattern changed after a certain time or the reaction rate just generally slowed down and we found a curve when comparing the concentration of the acid and the calcium carbonate. It was also not certain if the concentration keeps increasing the rate of reaction or this only happens to a certain extent. This could be found out by extending the range of concentrations reacted. These reactions would have to conducted very carefully though as hydrochloric acid of this concentration can be very dangerous. Paul Gregson Littlemoss High School Science ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What affects the rate of a reaction? The reaction I will be investigating is ...

    3 star(s)

    71 70 72 71.0 200 78 79 80 79.0 220 83 86 87 85.3 240 88 90 92 90.0 260 93 95 97 95.0 280 96 98 100 98.0 300 100 100 100 100.0 I put this reliable data into a graph so it would be a lot easier to

  2. How Concentration affects the rate of reaction.

    This shows that the weakest concentration of sodium thiosulphate in the solution takes the longest time to obscure the cross. This shows that there is a slow rate of reaction. 2nd graph shows how the rate of reaction affects the time taken for the solution to obscure the cross.

  1. An investigation to find out how the concentration of acid affects the rate of ...

    82.12 82.11 82.11 Total decrease in mass: 0.64g 0.65g 0.645g Skill Area A: Analysing Evidence and Drawing Conclusions Results I have drawn graphs of my averages on a separate sheet of graph paper, and drawn a curved line of best fit through each of the series of crosses.

  2. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    The temperature, if different all the time, will create inaccurate and unreliable results. Increasing the temperature will affect the reaction in two ways: 1. The particles are moving faster, so we get more collisions in a period of time. 2.

  1. Enzymes - show how substrate concentration affects the rate of reaction for an enzyme ...

    of water in order to get a concentration of 2 mol/dm�. Hence because 2 moles is: Number of moles = Mass Molar Mass Hence: 2 moles = Mass 34.0g/mol Therefore Mass = 2 moles � 34.0g/mol = 68.0g So therefore in order to make a hydrogen peroxide to a concentration

  2. Investigate various ways of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction and evaluate which ...

    Firstly, the molecules must collide. Secondly, they must be positioned so that the groups are together in a transition state between reactants and products and finally, the collisions must have enough energy to form this transition state and thus convert it into products.

  1. An Investigation to Show How Temperature Affects the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

    Surface Area of the Reactants Increasing the surface area of a solid reactant will speed up a reaction. This is because there will be more area available for molecule collisions. Original Solid Reactant Crushed Solid Reactant Available area for collisions Increased available surface area Colliding Particle Concentration of the Reactants

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    Table 8 shows no outliers. For the averages we did not include the outlier to give us a more reliable and precise average. As you can see we repeated the experiment 5 times to get obtain precise results. From the Table 8 we can see that the volume of gas

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work