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An Investigation into how concentration affects the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

An Investigation into how concentration affects the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid Planning I am going to see if I higher the concentration, the rate of reaction increases. In this experiment I am going to time it takes for the reaction to take place. I will start the stop clock when the magnesium is added to the solution and stop it as soon as the reaction stopped. I will try and do each experiment at the same temperature. I will use the same amount of magnesium every time. suppressed shiraz786's functionalism theory. Equipment I am going to use: � grams of magnesium � Hydrochloric acid � A beaker � Safety glasses � A thermometer � A measuring cylinder � A stop clock� water Method I will make a solution of hydrochloric acid and water. The amount of acid will vary every time. I will add the magnesium powder. As soon as I have done this I will start the stop clock. When the reaction has finished I will stop the stop clock. I will then take down the time and start on my next experiment changing the amount of acid every time. Fair Testing My experiment will be a fair test as I am keeping the amount of hydrochloric acid and water solution will stay the same, as will the amount of magnesium. The magnesium will be weighed to make sure that it is the same amount every time. Throughout the experiment I will try and do it all in the same temperature. Foucault Prediction I predict that if the concentration of hydrochloric acid is higher the rate of reaction will increase. If there are more acid particles there is more chance of them colliding into the magnesium atoms. This will cause more successful collisions per second. There are many factors that could affect the rate of reaction. The temperature will rise because it is exothermic and this could cause my results to be inaccurate. ...read more.

Middle

Prediction I predict that the higher the concentration of acid will be the faster the reaction will go; therefore a higher temperature will be reached. Increasing the concentration of the reactants will increase the frequency of collisions between the two reactants. If we increase the rate of reaction we increase the temperature rise of the reaction; a faster reaction allows more collisions to take place during the same period of time, which means there is a greater chance of more successful reactions when collisions take place. This results in more successful collisions and therefore more energy is released faster, releasing more heat to the surrounding environment. Increase the concentration of reactants in a solution (Hypothesis) If you get some really dilute acid and an alkali in solution and imagine all the particles bouncing around at random you can appreciate that for a reaction to occur, the acid particles must hit the alkali particles before anything spectacular can happen. With the acid being very dilute, many of these collisions will be with harmless water molecules, which play no part in the reaction; therefore it may be a while before the appropriate particles collide. However, if you increase the concentration of the acid, there are fewer water molecules to get in the way, so there are more useful collisions per second, so the reaction happens faster. If gases are used in a reaction, their concentration can be increased by squashing them up (compressing them into a smaller space), so they do not have to go as far in order to meet the particle of a type that will react. Hence, increasing the pressure of gaseous reactants will increase the rate. Method 1) For each concentration of acid 2cm3 should be measured out using a narrow cylinder with accurate gradients, making sure that you look at right-angles to the cylinder so that correct measurements are taken. 2) ...read more.

Conclusion

When drawing the graph the anomalous result was not included Graphs were draw on the computer, as they were more accurate and were more consistent at giving lines of best fit. The line of best fit was a smooth curve and was very close to each point many of which it ran through, showing that data was consistent and reliable. The pattern suggests that evidence is exact. This supports my theory further as we know that results were not indefinite but are persistent which is shown through the repeat of the whole experiment. Further Improvements @ Use pure Magnesium filings to increase surface area and increase the rate of reaction, which should give grater variation between concentrations. @ Make sure non-oxidised magnesium strips are used to give more accurate results. @ Use wooden clamps with better grip to prevent thermometers from slipping. @ Use more accurate thermometer so that more accurate readings can be read. @ Make sure that the concentrations of acid were as they stated so that we know that the results were as accurate as we thought. @ Insulate the test-tube which would prevent heat from being dissipated to the surrounding and allowing the thermometer to get a more accurate reading of the heat produced by the reaction. @ Control the temperature of the surrounding by encasing each experiment to prevent any changes in temperature at the start of the reaction to the end of the reaction from affecting the experiment. Extensions to the investigation Computers could be used to carry out data logs of the temperature during the experiment to give a more reliable and more accurate account of the experiments and to help distinguish patterns between concentration, heat produced and rate of reaction throughout each reaction. More concentrations of acid could be used to see if they also have similar affects on the temperature rise. Different substances could be reacted to see if they behave similarly. More repeats could be carried out to qualify the findings. These could be done under different conditions to see how the reactions react under a colder or hotter environment. ...read more.

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