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An investigation into how concentration affects the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

An investigation into how concentration affects the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid In this experiment I am going to find out how the rate of reaction between sodium Thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid is affected by changing the concentration of Hydrochloric acid.. We will be placing the mixture of both liquids on a paper with a black cross-drawn on, once the mixture begins to turn cloudy and the cross is no longer able to be seen, the reaction would have taken place. We will be measuring the time taken for this to happen, and therefore measure the rate of reaction. We will be doing this several times, changing the concentration of Hydrochloric acid, and completing the experiment of each level of concentration three times in order to gain an average result for each. The input variable we will be changing is the concentration of Hydrochloric acid. We are going to vary this factor to see what concentration of HCL is the fastest to react with Sodium Thiosulphate, and to measure the rate of reaction. The variable we will be measuring to find out how the effect the concentration has will be the time taken for the reaction to complete. ...read more.

Middle

Throughout the experiment, I will also be using a thermometer to ensure the temperatures of the two liquids do not dramatically change. Volume of both Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Thiosulphate: the more volume of a liquid, the more particles it has to collide and therefore increase the rate of reaction. To prevent this from happening, and making sure the volume of both the liquids does not affect the rate of reaction, I will be using the same amount of Hydrochloric acid, (mixed with the distilled water, depending on what concentration I am making), and Sodium Thiosulphate each time. Pressure and surface area: these are both known factors that affect the rate of reaction, but as I am using two liquids, and doing each part of the experiment on the same day, these certain factors should not affect the experiment. Catalyst: a catalyst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed; after the reaction it can be recovered from the reaction mixture chemically unchanged. The catalyst allows the reaction to proceed more quickly or at a lower temperature. To make sure a catalyst does not affect the rate of reaction in this particular experiment, I will simply not be adding a catalyst. ...read more.

Conclusion

As we increased the level of concentration of Hydrochloric acid, the rate of reaction was quicker, the time taken for the cross to no longer be seen decreased. The reason I wrote my prediction was, as the concentration of a solution becomes higher, the number of particles increased which means there is more chance of successful collisions which would increase the rate of reaction. My results table shows this, as I increased the concentration, the time taken decreased. Using the results from my table, I will now go on to draw a graph using the average time for each level of concentration. Evaluation Looking back at the experiment and my results I am able to see my experiment was fairly accurate. There were no anomalous results which shows we were very accurate and careful whilst completing each part of the experiment. However, there are a number of ways the accuracy of the experiment could have been improved. For example, using more accurate measuring equipment and ensuring to be completely accurate when choosing to stop the stop watch. As this was purely left down to the interpretation of one person, there was room for human error. Another way to improve accuracy would have been to ensure the temperature was kept the same at all times throughout the experiment, making sure temperature was not a factor affecting the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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