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An investigation into how surface area affects the rate of reaction

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Introduction

To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, with one in specific detail. An investigation into how surface area affects the rate of reaction Aim: To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, with one in specific detail. Scientific knowledge: To speed up the rate of a reaction, you can: * Add a catalyst * Increase the temperature * Increase the surface area * Increase the concentration These four methods all link in with the "Collision Theory" The basics of Collision Theory: Collision Theory relates to the number of molecules in the reaction, the chance of colliding correctly and the correct amount of energy. For a reaction to take place between two substances, their particles must collide, so if more collisions occur, the rate of the reaction increases. However only some collisions are successful. This is because not all particles have enough energy to break bonds in other particles. We can alter the conditions under which the reaction takes place so that more collisions occur in a given period of time and so that the rate will increase. Catalysts: The introduction of a catalyst means that less energy needs to be used for a successful collision. If each collision requires less energy, then more collisions can take place in a shorter period of time. They also provide a surface for the molecule to attach to, increasing the probability of particles bumping into each other. However, each different reaction needs a unique catalyst. Temperatures: Increasing the temperature gives the particles more energy, resulting in faster moving particles and, consequently, more collisions and an increased rate of reaction. When the reactants are heated, the rate generally increases. When the reactants are cooled, the reaction generally goes slower. According to the collision theory, particles must collide in order to react. ...read more.

Middle

Making sure taking the same amount of chips and hydrochloric acid at each time. 8. If time allows, repeat the experiments in order to improve the reliability of the results. Experiment 1st experiment Average results Formula for working out: Average Rate of reaction == total volume of CO2 in cm3 ______________________________ Total time for reaction Size of chips Total volume of CO?2? (g) (cm3) Total time for reaction Average Rate of reaction Medium (9-12mm) 98 cm3 105 sec 98-105=0.93 cm3 /s Small (2-4mm) 98 cm3 75 sec 98-75=1.30 cm3 /s Powdered 52 cm3 55 sec 52-55=0.94 cm3 /s 2nd experiment Size of chips Mass (g) of marble chips Volume of HCL Amount of CO?2? (cm3) produced every 15 sec 15 sec Medium (9-12mm) 4g 25 ml 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 Secs 9 20 28 35 45 52 58 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 Secs 64 73 78 84 88 92 94 225 240 Secs 98 100 Altogether 4mins 15 sec Small (2-4mm) 4g 25ml 15 30 45 60 75 Secs 15 32 65 85 100 Altogether 1min and 15 secs 15sec powdered 4g 25ml 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Secs 90 93 85 96 96 97 97 97 45 50 55 Secs 98 98 98 Altogether 55secs Average results Formula for working out: Average Rate of reaction == total volume of CO2 in cm3 ______________________________ Total time for reaction Size of chips Total volume of CO?2? (g) (cm3) Total time for reaction Average Rate of reaction Medium (9-12mm) 100 cm3 240 sec 100-240=0.41 cm3 /s Small (2-4mm) 100 cm3 75 sec 100-75=1.33 cm3 /s Powdered 98 cm3 55 sec 98-55=1.78 cm3 /s 3rd Experiment Size of chips Mass (g) of marble chips Volume of HCL Amount of CO?2? (cm3) produced every 15 sec 15 sec Medium (9-12mm) 4g 25 ml 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 Secs 9 20 33 46 55 65 75 120 135 150 Secs 85 92 107 Altogether 2mins and 30 sec 15 sec Small (2-4mm) ...read more.

Conclusion

I had only one anomalous result due in the experiment; this is why I chose this factor to show the effect on the rate of reaction. The only odd result that I had was with the medium size chips-time taken 45 secs-66cm3. I would like to also investigate other factors, which affect the rate of a reaction like temperature and concentration to see how they affect the rate of a reaction. I think my experiment was successful as I was able to obtain the evidence I needed to achieve my aim. I was planning to observe each reaction every 15 secs but I was unable to do so because the reaction using the powdered marble was very quick and therefore observed it every 5 secs. My graphs helped in proving my aim. A distinctive trend is shown in the graph as clearly show that small particles react faster than large particles. I was interested in this experiment when I first started. I was interested in seeing changes in the reactants at the end of the reaction. I was very satisfied when I found out that my predictions were correct. To furthur my experiment: I could use sulphuric acid. This is a dibasic acid and its molecular build-up is H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid is 2HCL, because of this I would obtain different results. I could also use phosphoric acid, which is a tribasic acid, and its molecular build-up is H3PO4, I would also obtain different results if I used this type of acid. Nitric acid is a monobasic acid but its molecular build-up is HNO3, which is very similar to the molecular build-up of hydrochloric acid so the results that I would obtain from using this acid would be similar to the ones I already have, so I would not use this for any further experiments. The reason I could use a different type of acid for any further work is to find if there is a difference between them if their molecular build up is different. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series (zinc, aluminium, iron and lead). ...read more.

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