• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14

An investigation into how surface area affects the rate of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, with one in specific detail. An investigation into how surface area affects the rate of reaction Aim: To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, with one in specific detail. Scientific knowledge: To speed up the rate of a reaction, you can: * Add a catalyst * Increase the temperature * Increase the surface area * Increase the concentration These four methods all link in with the "Collision Theory" The basics of Collision Theory: Collision Theory relates to the number of molecules in the reaction, the chance of colliding correctly and the correct amount of energy. For a reaction to take place between two substances, their particles must collide, so if more collisions occur, the rate of the reaction increases. However only some collisions are successful. This is because not all particles have enough energy to break bonds in other particles. We can alter the conditions under which the reaction takes place so that more collisions occur in a given period of time and so that the rate will increase. Catalysts: The introduction of a catalyst means that less energy needs to be used for a successful collision. If each collision requires less energy, then more collisions can take place in a shorter period of time. They also provide a surface for the molecule to attach to, increasing the probability of particles bumping into each other. However, each different reaction needs a unique catalyst. Temperatures: Increasing the temperature gives the particles more energy, resulting in faster moving particles and, consequently, more collisions and an increased rate of reaction. When the reactants are heated, the rate generally increases. When the reactants are cooled, the reaction generally goes slower. According to the collision theory, particles must collide in order to react. ...read more.

Middle

Making sure taking the same amount of chips and hydrochloric acid at each time. 8. If time allows, repeat the experiments in order to improve the reliability of the results. Experiment 1st experiment Average results Formula for working out: Average Rate of reaction == total volume of CO2 in cm3 ______________________________ Total time for reaction Size of chips Total volume of CO?2? (g) (cm3) Total time for reaction Average Rate of reaction Medium (9-12mm) 98 cm3 105 sec 98-105=0.93 cm3 /s Small (2-4mm) 98 cm3 75 sec 98-75=1.30 cm3 /s Powdered 52 cm3 55 sec 52-55=0.94 cm3 /s 2nd experiment Size of chips Mass (g) of marble chips Volume of HCL Amount of CO?2? (cm3) produced every 15 sec 15 sec Medium (9-12mm) 4g 25 ml 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 Secs 9 20 28 35 45 52 58 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 Secs 64 73 78 84 88 92 94 225 240 Secs 98 100 Altogether 4mins 15 sec Small (2-4mm) 4g 25ml 15 30 45 60 75 Secs 15 32 65 85 100 Altogether 1min and 15 secs 15sec powdered 4g 25ml 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Secs 90 93 85 96 96 97 97 97 45 50 55 Secs 98 98 98 Altogether 55secs Average results Formula for working out: Average Rate of reaction == total volume of CO2 in cm3 ______________________________ Total time for reaction Size of chips Total volume of CO?2? (g) (cm3) Total time for reaction Average Rate of reaction Medium (9-12mm) 100 cm3 240 sec 100-240=0.41 cm3 /s Small (2-4mm) 100 cm3 75 sec 100-75=1.33 cm3 /s Powdered 98 cm3 55 sec 98-55=1.78 cm3 /s 3rd Experiment Size of chips Mass (g) of marble chips Volume of HCL Amount of CO?2? (cm3) produced every 15 sec 15 sec Medium (9-12mm) 4g 25 ml 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 Secs 9 20 33 46 55 65 75 120 135 150 Secs 85 92 107 Altogether 2mins and 30 sec 15 sec Small (2-4mm) ...read more.

Conclusion

I had only one anomalous result due in the experiment; this is why I chose this factor to show the effect on the rate of reaction. The only odd result that I had was with the medium size chips-time taken 45 secs-66cm3. I would like to also investigate other factors, which affect the rate of a reaction like temperature and concentration to see how they affect the rate of a reaction. I think my experiment was successful as I was able to obtain the evidence I needed to achieve my aim. I was planning to observe each reaction every 15 secs but I was unable to do so because the reaction using the powdered marble was very quick and therefore observed it every 5 secs. My graphs helped in proving my aim. A distinctive trend is shown in the graph as clearly show that small particles react faster than large particles. I was interested in this experiment when I first started. I was interested in seeing changes in the reactants at the end of the reaction. I was very satisfied when I found out that my predictions were correct. To furthur my experiment: I could use sulphuric acid. This is a dibasic acid and its molecular build-up is H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid is 2HCL, because of this I would obtain different results. I could also use phosphoric acid, which is a tribasic acid, and its molecular build-up is H3PO4, I would also obtain different results if I used this type of acid. Nitric acid is a monobasic acid but its molecular build-up is HNO3, which is very similar to the molecular build-up of hydrochloric acid so the results that I would obtain from using this acid would be similar to the ones I already have, so I would not use this for any further experiments. The reason I could use a different type of acid for any further work is to find if there is a difference between them if their molecular build up is different. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series (zinc, aluminium, iron and lead). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid.

    4 star(s)

    The more collisions there are between particles at a given time, the faster the reaction will take place. A larger number of particles provide a larger number of successful reactions. In order for a reaction to take place, particles must collide with a minimum amount of energy called the 'activation energy' (Ea).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium ...

    3 star(s)

    2) Measure the amount of hydrochloric acid (cm ) needed (or diluted water - cm ) for the acidity of the concentration that is being tested. Then measure 5g of small calcium carbonate chips on the measuring weighing scales, and fill the water bath and a 100cm cylinder of water.

  1. Rates of Reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips

    I put the 5g of marble chips and the first concentration of acid into the conical flask and put the bung into the neck of the flask. Then the marble chips and acid started to react. I could tell this because there was effervescence in the flask.

  2. An investigation into how concentration effects the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips.

    I used 50cm� of solution each time which worked well but I will see if a lower or a higher volume of solution would be better Concentration/m Volume of solution/ cm� Time to get 50cm� of carbon dioxide/secs Temp/�C 0.5 20 184 24 0.5 50 132 23 0.5 80 134 24 The first results (using 20cm�)

  1. How does varying the concentration of Hydrochloric acid in reaction with Marble chips affect ...

    6. A measuring cylinder has been filled with water, a cork has been lightly placed into the cylinder to stop any water from flowing out whilst it is upside down. After it has been placed upside down into the water the cork was removed, and the cylinder was then supported so

  2. The rate of reaction between Nitric acid and marble chips.

    Apparatus The following equipment is required for the experiment: * Marble chips of a mass of approximately 0.4g. * 20ml of bench HNO3 for each run * 1 Boiling tube * 1 Stop-watch * 1 Measuring Cylinder * 1 Water bath filled with water * 1 Bung * 1 Stand

  1. How Does Rate of Concentration Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and ...

    This would change the rate of reaction because: "Reactions usually require collisions between reactant molecules or atoms. The formation of bonds requires atoms to come close to one another. New bonds can form only if the atoms are close enough together to share electrons.

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    added the calcium chips as fast as possible to ensure the gas does not escape into the air, and not in the gas cylinder. As soon as we placed the bung inside the conical flask, we immediately started the stop watch and timed it up to 120 seconds.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work