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An Investigation into How the Amount of Heat Produced By Burninga Fuel Depends On the Mass of the Fuel Burnt

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Introduction

An Investigation into How the Amount of Heat Produced By Burning a Fuel Depends On the Mass of the Fuel Burnt Aim My aim is to measure the energy released when burning ethanol. Introduction Exothermic reactions release energy in the form of heat. A rise in the temperature indicates an exothermic reaction. The energy that is given out due to the breaking of bonds forms new bonds, therefore an exothermic reaction occurs. When breaking old bonds the energy is not as great as it is when bonds are forming. Endothermic reactions continuously need heat to be put in so they can form the necessary chemical bonds. In an endothermic reaction the products tend to be of more use then the reactants. A fall in the temperature indicates an endothermic reaction. The breaking of bonds is an endothermic reaction, this is when the existing bonds are supplied with energy to break them. When forming new bonds the energy is not as great as it is when bonds are broken. Scientific Knowledge The following equation was the one used to calculate the amount of energy released by the ethanol: C2H5OH ==> 2CO2 + 3H2O Bond Energies: C - C 347kJ/mol C - H 413kJ/mol O - H 464kJ/mol C - O 360kJ/mol C = C 612kJ/mol H - H 436kJ/mol C = O ...read more.

Middle

Variables Independent Variables: I will only change the mass of ethanol I use, increasing it each time. Dependent Variables: I shall be measuring the temperature and change in mass during this experiment. Fixed Variables: Throughout the experiment I will make sure the volume of the water remains the same, the fuel I use will always be ethanol, the height will always be 7cm from the base of the clamp, the crucible I use weighs the same as the first one I used or that it is the same one and that I use the exact same can. Ensuring I Carry out a Fair Test * Repeat the experiment and work out and average. * Use the same crucible each time as some might be thicker then others, which can cause a change in conductivity and results. * Use the same can each time. * Make sure the height from the bottom of the can to the base of the clamp is always the same for if it isn't it could effect the results. * Always ensure you are using the same amount of water each time. Apparatus * Clamp * Safety Mat * Soft Drink can (eg. Coke, Sprite, etc.) * Measuring Cylinder * Water * Thermometer * Crucible * Ethanol * Pipette * Splint * Tongs * Digital Balance Labelled Diagram Risk Assessment * Make sure you wear goggles at all times for protection. ...read more.

Conclusion

Results Table 1: Amount Of Ethanol (g) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Mass Of Crucible & Fuel Before Burning (g) 15.67 16.17 16.69 17.17 17.67 18.17 18.67 19.17 Mass Of Crucible & Fuel After Burning (g) 15.17 15.19 15.17 15.17 15.17 15.17 15.17 15.17 Mass Of Fuel Burnt (g) 0.5 0.98 1.52 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Volume Of Water In The Can (ml) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 Temperature Of Water Before Burning (�C) 22 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 Temperature Of Water After Burning (�C) 26 27 39 44 52 54 59 62 Rise In Temperature Of The Water (�C) 4 6 17 22 30 32 36 39 Table 2: Amount Of Ethanol (g) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Mass Of Crucible & Fuel Before Burning (g) 15.67 16.17 16.67 17.17 17.70 18.19 18.67 19.17 Mass Of Crucible & Fuel After Burning (g) 15.17 15.17 15.17 15.20 15.19 15.17 15.17 15.17 Mass Of Fuel Burnt (g) 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.97 2.51 3.02 3.5 4.0 Volume Of Water In The Can (ml) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 Temperature Of Water Before Burning (�C) 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 24 Temperature Of Water After Burning (�C) 27 29 37 44 51 56 59 65 Rise In Temperature Of The Water (�C) 5 7 15 22 29 34 37 41 Firuze Naim 11P Chemistry Coursework 1 ...read more.

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