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An investigation into how the amount of water in the endothermic reaction between sodium hydrocarbonate and citric acid.

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Introduction

An investigation into how the ammount of water in the endothermic reaction between sodium hydrocarbonate and citric acid. Planning Aim: the aim of this experiment is to investigate if the reaction between sodium hydro carbonate and citric acid in water is worth further investigation for implication into a portable ice pack. Hypothesis: I believe that as the amount of water increases so the amount of time it takes for the reactants to reach a same lower temperature. I also believe that they won't go as cold. I believe this as the greater the amount of water there is the greater amount of energy is going to be needed to cool down the water as they have to cool down each gram of water with the same amount of energy. ...read more.

Middle

It will appear proportional except it will be slightly in favour of going up as seen in this diagram. [image002.jpg] The fact that this is an endothermic reaction also means that as the temperature gets colder so the particles move slower and so as the concentration decreases and the reaction time takes longer it will not be proportional and will deviate slightly more favourable. These two factors put together should mean that the line should be a slight curve. Diagram: [image004.jpg] Variables: the amounts of sodium hydrocarbonate and citric acid shall be kept the same, as shall the equipment used. The amount of water used shall however be changed. The temperature that the experiment shall be kept the same as far as possible. ...read more.

Conclusion

The temperature sensor shall already be placed in the lid so as I put it on the sensor shall pick up the starting temperature. After 2 minuets I shall stop the clock and check what readings the sensor has picked up. I shall repeat this process for all the amounts of water I need to do. I shall clean out the film case after each time I use it. Apparatus: I am going to need a see through film case, a laptop with data logging software, a temperature sensor, 175 grams of sodium hydrocarbonate, 70 grams of citric acid, a stopwatch and 175 ml of water. Risk assessment: the citric acid could be harmful to our eyes if we get some in them so we shall all wear safety glasses to avoid this. Apart from that there is no real risk. ...read more.

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