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An investigation into how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble (calcium carbonate) chips

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Introduction

An investigation into how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble (calcium carbonate) chips Introduction For the two substances to react the intramolecular bonds must first be broken by the activation energy. Once they are broken they need to collide with eachother to reform, with covalent bonds, to produce the new substances. In the case of hydrochloric acid and marble chips the basic reaction is shown below: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid = Water + Carbon Dioxide + Calcium Chloride CaCo3 + 2HCL = H2O + CO2 + CaCl2 For the reaction to take place activation energy is needed. The rate of reaction between the two substances is affected by many different factors. These include: * Temperature * Surface Area * Concentration/Pressure * Catalyst Aim My aim is to investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips Prediction I predict that as you increase the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the rate of reaction with the marble chips will also increase. ...read more.

Middle

I will measure the rate of reaction by timing how quickly the carbon dioxide produced in the reaction displaces the water in the test tube. I will start the stop watch as soon as the hydrochloric acid is added to the marble chips. I will need certain apparatus to perform this investigation with enough accuracy to draw some conclusions at the end. I will need: * 6 test tubes (one where the carbon dioxide displaces the water) * 1 dispensary tube * 1 bowl half full of water (this part doesn't have to be accurate as long as the water level is above the bottom of the test tube) * 5 different molar concentrations of 25cm of hydrochloric acid (shown below) * 5 batches of 1mg of marble chips (explained below) * Stopwatch (0d.p. as there is no need because there is inaccuracy in the human reaction time to put the bung on) ...read more.

Conclusion

I will overcome this factor by making sure that the tests are done in similar conditions. E.g. not doing one near a window providing heat energy and the others in the shade where there is less heat energy. Obviously, due to inaccuracies which will take place whilst the bung is being placed on the test tube this factor doesn't have to be kept totally equal. 2. Surface Area The smaller the particles the larger the surface area and the greater the number the articles exposed which can collide, leading to a faster rate of reaction. I will overcome this factor by making sure that similar sizes of marble chips are included in the 1mg batches. For this factor to be kept equal powdered marble must be used. I may consider using powdered marble if it is available at the time of the experiment as it will improve the accuracy of the investigation. This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database Click here to visit Coursework.Info/ ...read more.

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