• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8
9. 9
9
10. 10
10
11. 11
11

# An Investigation Into The Effect Of Speed Of A Vehicle On Its Stopping Distance.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE Double Science Award Physics Coursework.

An Investigation Into The Effect Of Speed Of A Vehicle On Its Stopping Distance.

An Investigation Into The Effect Of Speed Of A Vehicle On Its Stopping Distance.

Plan.

To carry out my study into how speed effects the stopping distance of a vehicle I must first identify the factors that affect the stopping distance. The main factors that will affect the stopping distance of the vehicle are the speed, mass, traction and any friction caused by the vehicle. Speed has relevance because the faster a vehicle is travelling; the longer it takes for it to stop. The mass has significance because the vehicle will be travelling purely on its own accord, along with the help of gravity. The traction is relevant and comes hand in hand with friction caused because the tyres or wheels of the car will be coming in contact with the surface of the ramp and the lino floor. The better grip the tyres have will mean that they create more friction with what they are coming in contact with. Also the friction created on the vehicle chassis and the vehicles front and rear axles will also slow the car.

Acceleration is a numerical description of how the velocity of an object is changing. Imagine sitting in a car that is starting off from a stationary position. You look at the speedometer and watch the needle turn as the car gets faster.

Middle

1) In the first experiment I shall change the height of the slope and keep the ramp clearance distance constant. I shall not change the mass of the vehicle in any of my first two experiments.

2) In my second intended experiment I shall change the length of the ramp but the gradient of the ramp shall remain constant.

3) In my third and final experiment I shall keep the length of the slope constant as well as the gradient but shall alter the mass of the vehicle by adding plaster sine.

My apparatus will be set up as below:

I will time the clearance distance from point A to point B. I will measure the stopping distance from point B to point C. I shall record these results on a table and then plot them on a graph.

An Investigation Into The Effect Of Speed Of A Vehicle On Its Stopping Distance.

Method.

For my three experiments I necessitate:

1X Stopwatch to measure the ramp clearance time.

1X Plank of wood to act as ramp.

2X Meter ruler to measure distance travelled by the car from the front end of the ramp.

1X Calculator to calculate averages, speeds, etc.

1X toy car to act as vehicle.

Plaster sine.

1X Weighing scale to measure mass of vehicle.

I shall enter the data I collect from each experiment into a table and then a graph as follows:

Experiment 1: The effect of gradient of ramp on stopping distance.

 Gradient in m Ramp clearance time in seconds Average speed in m/s Speed at bottom in m/s Distance travelled from ramp / stopping distance in m 1 2 3 4 Ave. 1 2 3 4 Ave.

The car I shall use in this experiment will have a mass of 23.8 grams. I shall keep the clearance distance constant throughout this experiment. I shall select a gradient or rear height for my ramp and record it. I shall then release the car three separate times and write the clearance times and stopping distances into the table and also any other relevant information for each release. I will then do the same on another six different gradients and then plot a graph of my results showing the speed at the bottom in m/s against average stopping distance. All my graphs will show the same.

To calculate the speed at which the vehicle is travelling I shall use the following formula:

Distance Travelled            =        Clearance Distance

## Experiment 2: The effect of clearance distance on stopping distance.

 Clearance distance in m Ramp clearance time in seconds Average speed in m/s Speed at bottom in m/s Distance travelled from ramp / stopping distance in m 1 2 3 4 Ave. 1 2 3 4 Ave.

Conclusion

4) Aerodynamics – the shape of an object determines whether the object is streamlined or not. Streamlined objects offer less resistance against movement, which means the vehicle accelerates for a longer period of time and so is travelling faster and will have a greater stopping distance.

An Investigation Into The Effect Of Speed Of A Vehicle On Its Stopping Distance.

Evaluation.

There were a few main factors contributing to the errors that occurred in my experiment:

1) My timing of the clearance distance

2) My measuring of clearance distance, stopping distance, gradient and other distances.

To correct these two factors, I could have asked for more assistance in taking readings, etc. and for more accurate equipment and this would have helped greatly.

I could have also created some method of checking the direction of the car such as attaching a piece of string to the rear of the vehicle and this would have helped me visualise the cars’ direction.

I could have also taken more precise readings for my graphs and thus I would have had a more precise graph.

If I were to conduct this experiment again or for longer, I could have corrected the inconsistencies by experimenting with the surface area of the cars, the floor I tested everything on, etc. I could have also tried it with real cars but this would have been more time consuming and there aren’t hills that could be used for such an experiment everywhere.

G.C.S.E. Double Science Award Coursework

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

1. ## Physics Investigation: The effect of speed on braking distance

4 star(s)

This is a very quick method, which is easy to execute. The stopwatch isn't very accurate; as it is very hard to know when exactly where the ball has moved along the ramp, and thus can cause confusion as one person may begin the timing of the stopwatch at a

2. ## Stopping distances of toy cars travelling down a ramp

3 star(s)

I would use low friction wheels on a rail which would limit the effect that friction has on my results. The surface I would use would be a no friction surface to limit friction so more.

1. ## Investigate and measure the speed of a ball rolling down a ramp.

get rid of ad much human error, then I would stop the stopwatch as the ball crosses the finish line, which would be placed 200cm after the starting line. I would repeat that for every height respectively, five times each.

2. ## The effect of the temperature on the viscosity of the syrup.

Time it took (s) Distance travelled (cm) Velocity (ms-1) Viscosity (Nsm-2) % of increase 500 5324 1.2 25 0.208 1.54 450 5324 2.9 25 0.0862 3.71 58% 400 5324 4.8 25 0.0521 6.14 40% 350 5324 6.5 25 0.0385 8.31 26% 300 5324 9 25 0.0278 11.5 28% 250 5324 13.5 25 0.0185 17.3 34% 200 5324 33 25

1. ## How the height of a ramp affects the speed of a toy car.

These are shown in a table on my graph. In this experiment I decided not to measure the angles as I did in the preliminary one, I used the height instead but I can calculate them using trigonometry to compare them with the preliminary experiment: height (m) Angle. 0.017 sin -1 ( 1.7/50) = 1.95� 0.035 sin -1 (3.5/50)

2. ## Investigating the speed of a toy car travelling down a ramp

WEIGHT (G) READING 1 READING 2 READING 3 AVERAGE 25 1.502 1.491 1.510 1.501 26 1.514 1.506 1.493 1.504 27 1.512 1.518 1.510 1.513 28 1.507 1.504 1.511 1.507 29 1.493 1.500 1.488 1.494 30 1.070 1.498 1.503 1.357 31 1.516 1.520 1.516 1.517 32 1.505 1.503 1.493 1.500 33

1. ## Investigating Stopping Distances

On the graph there was a linear line, which does not pass through the origin, therefore a procedure in the apparatus was incorrect. If I were to redo this experiment I would make several changes. Below is a list of the factors causing problems and proposed solutions.

2. ## In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

and at the bottom all the potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy. Using this theory, we can say: Potential Energy (at the top) = Kinetic Energy (at the bottom) Page 118 and 119 of the same book explains how to calculate potential and kinetic energy: "A weight lifter

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to