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An Investigation into the Effect of Temperature on the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase.

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Introduction

An Investigation into the Effect of Temperature on the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase By Christine Mitchell Introduction: The catalase is added to hydrogen peroxide (H�0�), a vigorous reaction occurs and oxygen gas is evolved. This experiment investigates the effect of temperature on the rate at which the enzyme works by measuring the amount of oxygen evolved over a period of time. The experiment was carried out varying the temperature and recording the results. It was then repeated but we removed the catalase (potato) and added Lead Nitrate in its place, we again tested this experiment at two different temperatures and recorded the results. Once all the experiments were calculated, comparisons against two other groups were recorded. With this information we were able to identify any patterns and similarities. Hypothesis: The higher the temperature of water, potato and H�O�, the rate at which the Enzyme will work will be faster therefore producing more oxygen. The reaction will be the same without the catalase (potato). Therefore in both experiments the Enzyme will work more rapidly and produce more oxygen. Aim: To test the hypothesis. Method: Equipment needed: Ruler Measuring Cylinder Scalpel Tongs Pipette Thermometer Tri-pod Stop-clock Gauze Delivery Tube Bunsen Burner Beaker Matches/Lighter Potato Hydrogen Peroxide Solution (20%) Water Lead Nitrate The skin of the potato was removed using a scalpel and then cut into 1cm�, using a ruler to measure the size of each cube, four cubes are required for each experiment, and therefore at least 36 cubes are required for the full experiment to take place. ...read more.

Middle

Number of Oxygen Bubbles Released in 60 seconds: (H�O� & Lead Nitrate) 20 45 - - 0 - - 22 - - 4 - - - 25 - 36 - - 0 - 31 - - 6 - - 0 32 34 - - - - - 34 - 67 - 0 - - Table 3 The above table (Table3) demonstrates the different reactions that occurred when the experiment was repeated with Lead Nitrate, and then again with Lead Nitrate but without the potato. Each column represents the findings of the three groups; the first group is our own results. Conclusion: This would conclude that my hypothesis for the first experiment (potato, hydrogen peroxide) was supported by the experiment. This was indicated by the number of oxygen bubbles that were released. Showing that at the temperature of 50� eighty-four bubbles were released, proving that the higher the temperature the faster the reaction of the catalase. However, my conclusion on the experiment where the potato was removed and lead nitrate added, it clearly showed that there was no reaction at all. This was demonstrated by my results as well as the two comparisons I made. Analysis and Discussion: Enzymes are globular proteins, which are polymers of amino acids. They range in size from 1 x 104 daltons to 1 x 106 daltons with the majority being in the 105 range. Some enzymes have extra molecules other than amino acids, which assist in the reaction they carry out. ...read more.

Conclusion

If the cells don't break down the hydrogen peroxide, then they would be poisonous and die. There are three essential steps in the participation of the mechanism of enzyme action: 1. The enzyme must attach itself to the substance(s) on which it works. These substances are called the substrates of the enzyme. Substrates attach to a particular part of the enzyme's surface; this is called the active site. This is very much like a jigsaw puzzle, and particular substrates attach and fit into the enzymes. This is called enzyme recognition. 2. Internal rearrangement of the enzyme substrate forms the product. 3. The enzyme releases the product, showing the catalytic role of the enzyme. The process then continues again and again with the "free" enzyme to locate its matching substrate(s). Enzymes can be found in every organ of the body. For example, they can change starches, proteins, and sugars into substances the body can digest. Blood clotting is an example of enzymes at work. Enzymes exist in the mouth (saliva), stomach (gastric juice), and intestines (pancreatic juice, intestinal juice, and intestinal mucosa). I believe the results I obtained showed precisely the higher the temperature the quicker the reaction, but when the catalase is removed no reaction occurs. Reference: Author: Title: Publisher: Date of Publication: www.bact.wisc.edu/microtextbook/dalton 2003 Marieb, Elaine N Human Anatomy & Physiology, 3rd Edition Holyoke Community College 1993 Wancke, J. H Christopher Chemicals of Life 2003 Guyton, M. D Arthur Basic Human Physiology: Normal Function & Mechanisms of Disease Saunders 1977 www.biologylab.co. Stephen Fuller CATALASE Observing an enzyme Kansas City, Missouri School 2003 ...read more.

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