• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9

An Investigation Into the Effect of Wave Exposure On the Morphology of Fucus Vesiculosus (Bladder Wrack)

Extracts from this document...


AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF WAVE EXPOSURE ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF FUCUS VESICULOSUS (BLADDER WRACK) Introduction This investigation is on the effect of wave exposure on the morphology of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, commonly known as bladder wrack. Fucus vesiculosus is a common seaweed, found in the Atlantic, which is made up of a holdfast, midrib and fronds. It also has bladders to aid buoyancy so that the plant can float on the surface of the water and get light for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is not only used for growth, but also for the development of the holdfast, which uses carbohydrates not used up in the synthesis of starch. From a previous pilot study of a transect along a rocky shoreline, it is known that Fucus vesiculosus always grows on the mid zone of rocky shores (see appendix). This is because the water levels are too high on the lower shore, and the desiccation risk on the upper shore is too high. At sites with high wave exposure, the shore is exposed to a lot of wave action and, there will be a lot of turbulence. Because of the turbulence, less light will be able to penetrate the water. The growth of the Fucus vesiculosus depends on carbohydrates being produced as a product of photosynthesis, and the rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to light intensity. ...read more.


(n1 + n2) / 2 = nn1 (nn1 + n3) /2 = nn2 (nn2 + n4) /2 = nn3 etc. The running mean of lengths of Fucus vesiculosus at Instow Sample number Lengths (cm) 1 2 27.3 3 23.2 4 22.7 5 21.2 6 20.6 7 19.7 8 20.1 9 20.2 10 20.1 11 19.9 12 20.3 13 20.5 14 21.4 15 21.5 16 21.6 17 22.6 18 22.9 19 23.4 20 23.4 21 23.3 22 23.1 23 23.1 24 23.3 25 23.9 26 24.4 27 24.5 28 24.2 29 23.7 30 23.3 Table 3 See graph 4 for graphic representation of the running mean (table 3). Two frequency histograms were plotted (see graphs 2 and 3), to show the differences the wave exposure made, and to see whether the data was normally distributed hence deciding which statistical test to use. The T test was chosen because the data is normally distributed and it will show the differences between the two means of information collected from the two sites, and show me whether the differences between the two sites are purely coincidental or whether it is due to the difference in wave exposure. See appendix for calculations and results for the t test. Analysis The abiotic factors at the two sites, mentioned in the methodology are all fairly similar to each other. This means that it can be said that any differences discovered between the morphology of F. ...read more.


To obtain the highest level of accuracy, a continuous transect along the beach would have perhaps given more precise results as a larger percentage of the population would have been taken into account. To find out more about the effect of wave exposure o the morphology of F. vesiculosus, the investigation would have to be taken further afield and more beaches would have to be sampled, all with different levels of wave exposure. This investigation can only be relevant to sheltered and semi exposed shores like Instow and Abbotsham. If there were more dependent variables then the results would also say more about the specific effects of wave action and more links could be made and detailed conclusions drawn about the effect it has on many aspects of the morphology of the seaweed. The results of the investigation could have been presented in other ways, which would make more trends visible, maybe including more statistical tests for proof of any more trends possibly found. The results obtained are quite restricted in terms of how they can be interpreted, but had more results been obtained, more options would have been available as to how they could have been interpreted. Conclusion The effect of wave exposure on the morphology of Fucus vesiculosus is that, according to this investigation, the less exposed the plants are to waves, the more air bladders they have. Seaweed more exposed to waves tends to be longer, and have less air bladders. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    is equal to the critical value, I have to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, "there is a significant difference in the number of Gammarus found in the riffles and pools" I used the Mann-Whitney Test in my real investigation.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of a germination inhibitor on the germination of seeds.

    3 star(s)

    The test provides a figure which can be interpreted to show whether this is the case. Below is a table of 6 people's results out of a class investigation. Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 6 0* 10 25 50 75 100 0 10 25 50 75 100 0

  1. Photosynthesis Investigation

    coats - Wear gloves on the hand because of chemicals being used - Don't touch any chemicals with naked hand - Do not run around in the lab Method I will be explaining the method to test whether starch is present in the leaves of the plant.

  2. An Investigation into Species Diversity with distance along a Pingo.

    If the temperature exceeds the optimum for the particular enzyme, the active site denatures, thus preventing the enzyme from working. Denaturing causes the enzyme structure to break down, it occurs as the molecule vibrates so energetically that some bonds, in particular the hydrogen bonds of the active site, which hold the enzyme in its precise shape break.

  1. 'A study into the effect of phosphate concentrations on the growth of phytoplankton'.

    For inoculation, growth and collection of results 10cm� syringes A bank of fluorescent, (Supplying around 60-80�Em-2s-1) or if not available a suitably light area Cuvettes Colorimeter, (A suitable on would be the 'WPA CO75 Colorimeter' A suitable light filter, (520)

  2. How temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis.

    are released is increased. As before, at lower temperatures the probability of collisions between enzymes and substrate molecules is low, therefore a low increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed between 0 oC and 15 oC, whereas at higher temperatures, more kinetic energy is provided and the number of

  1. Broad Bean Investigation.

    resolved by the fact I put in a artificial light to store in the chiller along with the beaker with the bean but then another problem arises- the problem that at night the beakers not in the chiller will receive no light as it is dark but the beaker in

  2. Analyze the rocky shore ecosystem and the changes in the bio-diversity in the rock ...

    The dimension of each region was measured using the metre scale. 6. The depth of each region was also found using the metre scale. 7. The number of each species of plants and animals present in every region was counted.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work