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An Investigation into the effects of concentration on the reactions between magnesium and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Amy Watson 10v An Investigation into the effects of concentration on the reactions between magnesium and hydrochloric acid Introduction There are four factors that affect how fast a reaction happens (its rate.) They are: * Temperature * Surface area * The concentration * A catalyst In this experiment I am going to investigate only one of these factors, the concentration (or pressure in gases.). The concentration can be rise in product or fall in reactant. Rate of a reaction = Change in concentration Change in time I am going to investigate the effect concentration has on the rate of reaction by adding magnesium to hydrochloric acid and measuring how much hydrogen is given off in what time. Metal + acid Salt + hydrogen Magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride+ hydrogen Mg (s)+ 2HCl(aq) MgCl (aq) + H (g) Hypothesis I predict that the higher the concentration is the faster the rate of reaction. As the concentration is increased so will the rate of reaction, they are directly proportional. I predict that this will happen because as the concentration is increased so is the number of collisions of particles per second. The chloride ions will collide with the magnesium ions to form MgCl in solution as Mg and Cl . The hydrogen ions will collide with each other to form hydrogen molecules. The following variables will affect my experiment: * Temperature- as when temperature is increased, the heat energy in the solution is increased. ...read more.

Middle

Method * The experiment was carried out exactly as the plan says. Results The first table shows the results for our first attempt at the experiment. It shows the time increasing every 5 seconds with the amount of hydrogen (cm ) released from the conical flask for the different concentrations at the different times. 1st attempt Concentration of HCl (mol/dm ) The second table shows the results for our second attempt at the experiment. It shows the time increasing every 5 seconds with the amount of hydrogen (cm ) released from the conical flask for the different concentrations at the different times. 2nd attempt Concentration of HCl (mol/dm ) As you can see from both my result tables and graph. I have no anomalous results. Therefore I do not need to repeat any of my results. Below is a table of my average results: Concentration of HCl (mol/dm ) Using my graph of averages I have been able to work out the rate of reaction for each concentration. I measure all of the rates from 2.5 seconds on the x axis, as the reaction was still taking place rapidly at 2.5 seconds for all the different concentrations. For 0.5mol of HCl: Rate of reaction= Change in concentration Change in time Rate of reaction = 0.75 2.5 = 0.3cm /sec Below is a table showing the rate of reaction against concentration. Conclusion My results and graph shows that the higher the concentration is the quicker the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some concentrations could have accidentally been swirled more than others, meaning the hydrochloric acid had more initiation energy. By procedure was quite suitable, and I f eel that the amount of results that we had was adequate, although in an ideal world more results would have been taken for accuracy and an average taken. My results were sufficient and prove my conclusion as they followed the basic trend that they should. I used a wide range of concentrations of hydrochloric acid, from 0.5 mol/dm to 2.5mol/dm at 0.5 intervals. I also used a 5mol/dm. I produced reliable results, as they were repeated. I could improve this experiment by making sure that the magnesium strips that I used were from the same batch, to make sure that there was no magnesium oxide on the outside of the magnesium, by cleaning them with energy paper. I could perform the experiment in the same day to make sure that a different batch of HCl was used. I could use a wider range of concentrations of HCl, maybe a 1.25mol/dm, 1.75mol/dm, 2.25mol/dm and a 2.75mol/dm. I would try a 6mol/dm but the reaction would be to fast for us to record. My suggested values would give me more points on my graph and I could be more certain that it is a straight line. I could extent this experiment my changing an addition variable. For example, temperature, surface area , a catalyst. Obviously, this would take much longer, but would produce some very interesting useful results. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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