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An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction Between Magnesium and Acid

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Introduction

An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction Between Magnesium and Acid Introduction In this piece of coursework I will investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. This reaction tends to be easily visible because Hydrogen (H) is produced in the reaction forming bubbles. Heat and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) are also produced during the reaction. The reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid continues until all the Magnesium has reacted to form Magnesium Chloride and there is none left. Word equation: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid --> Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Symbol equation: Mg + 2HCl ==> MgCl2 + H Factors In this section I will be talking about 'collisions' referring to the collision theory. The collision theory is thus: Particles are continually moving around. These particles sometimes collide with a solid. If the particles have enough energy they will react with the solid they collide with. Surface Area: When the surface are of the Magnesium is increased the rate of reaction should also increase. This is because there is a larger area for the acid particles to hit therefore increasing the chance of successful collisions. Temperature: If the temperature of the acid increases the rate of reaction should also increase. This is because at a higher temperature the acid particles take in more energy and move faster so collisions are more regular and more successful. ...read more.

Middle

Method: 1) I will fill the beaker with water and put the test tube with 5 ml of acid in the beaker 2) I will indirectly heat the acid (as explained above) to whichever temperature I am testing 3) When the acid reaches the appropriate temperature I will remove the Bunsen burner 4) I will add the Magnesium and immediately start my stopwatch 5) When all the Magnesium has reacted to form Magnesium Chloride I will stop my stopwatch and make a record of the time taken for the Magnesium to finish reacting. I predict that as temperature increases, the rate of reaction will increase also. Results Temperature (c) Time (seconds) Average (seconds) Rate of Reaction Test1 Test2 Test3 20 93 88 86 92.3 0.0108 30 74 77 75 75.3 0.0133 40 62 66 64 64 0.0156 50 56 55 57 56 0.0179 60 47 45 42 44.6 0.0224 See fig. 1 for graph. Conclusion My set of results has led me to the conclusion that temperature does affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. When the temperature of the acid is increased, the rate of reaction also increases. Four of the points on the graph have a line of best fit with positive correlation. This clearly shows that as I predicted, there is a direct relationship between temperature and the rate of reaction - they are proportional to each other. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, in my experiment this was not the case. This was probably because I had no means of maintaining the temperature I was testing, which resulted in a steady fall in temperature. This would slow down the rate of reaction. This is also another possible explanation as to why my result for 60 degrees Celsius is anomalous. In the other tests, the water may have cooled more quickly than in the test for 60 degrees. My test would have been better if I had been able to maintain the temperature that I was testing, as water was obviously not very good at retaining heat. My test may have been better if I had measured how much Hydrogen was produced in each reaction rather than just how long the reaction lasted for. I could have done this by putting a bung with a delivery tube in the test tube which contained the Hydrochloric acid and Magnesium and put the other end of the delivery tube in an upturned measuring cylinder full of water in a beaker full of water. I would have then been able to record how long it took for a certain amount of Hydrogen to be produced by the reaction. This would have been more accurate than my method as the method I used was based on me using something visual which was dependant on my judgement so there was a possibility of experimental error rather than simply taking down a measurement. 1 Steve Aston ...read more.

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