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An Investigation into the factors affecting the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation into the factors affecting the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid - Planning * Hypothesis I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction will increase therefore the gas will be produced faster. I believe this because most chemical reactions happen faster when the temperature is higher. At higher temperatures molecules mover around faster, which makes it easier for them to react together. Usually, a rise of 10OC will double the rate of reaction. Chemical reactions take place by chance. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. As the temperature is increased the particles move faster since they have more energy. This means that they are colliding more often and more of the collisions have enough velocity to cause a reaction. Since there are more collisions the chemical reaction takes place faster. * Pilot Experiment To decide on the best volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid and best mass of magnesium a number of calculations were done and a pilot experiment conducted. The equation for the reaction is: Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(l) Magnesium Chloride(l) + Hydrogen(g) Mg(s) + 2HCL(l) MgCl2(l) + H2(g) We were advised to use 0.1g of magnesium ribbon (found to be 10.9 cm long). The Relative Molecular Mass (RMM) of magnesium is 24, therefore the moles of magnesium to be used was: Moles= 0.1 24 Moles= 0.00416 In the reaction above, 1 mole of magnesium reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid. The concentration of acid was 1mol/dm3. Therefore the volume of hydrochloric acid used was: Volume = 0.00416 * 2 1 Volume = 0.0083dm3 Volume = 8.3cm3 It was decided to use an excess of hydrochloric acid to ensure all the magnesium reacted, therefore 10cm3 of acid was used in the pilot experiment. At room temperature 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid was added to 0.1g of magnesium and the gas was collected (see fig 1). ...read more.

Middle

� Surface area of the magnesium If the magnesium had a bigger surface area each time the experiment was done, then the acid particles will have a bigger area to collide with, so more collisions will occur every second and the more collisions per second than the more successful collisions per second. � Type of acid used If you changed the type of acid then the rate of reaction would change. Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Nitric acid all would produce a different rate of reaction, so if I do change the type of acid then all three kinds would produce a different set of results. Key factor I have chosen to use the concentration of the acid as my factor that I will change. I chose this because several different concentrations can be made up before the experiment by the lab technicians and they will be able to make them accurately. There will be several different concentrations of acid, which will give me a wide range of results, which will be reliable and reproducible. Question My question is to see that if I change the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid for each experiment I will see an increase or decrease in the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Magnesium ribbon. Prediction My prediction is that the higher the concentration of the acid then the higher the rate of the reaction will be. I am saying this because of the collision theory. The higher the concentration of acid then the higher the number of acid particles present per 100cm3 of acid. This means that there will be more collisions per second, which means there will be more successful collisions per second, so the rate of reaction will increase. If I double the concentration of the acid from 1M hydrochloric acid to 2M hydrochloric acid then I will expect to see the rate of the reaction double. ...read more.

Conclusion

I could also use a monometer to be sure that the atmospheric pressure inside the syringe is the same as the pressure outside of the syringe. Monometer Gas Syringe To be sure that the pressure is the same inside the syringe as outside the syringe the water levels in the monometer must be level. The last improvement to my procedure is that I should check for gas leakages where the bung is placed into the conical flask, a smear of Vaseline would help me do this. Further work There are several things that I could do for further work. The first is to find out what the initial rate of reaction would be for concentrations 1.25M hydrochloric acid and 1.75M hydrochloric acid as it would be interesting to see how the rate increases compared to 1M hydrochloric acid. Another experiment that I could do is change the type of acid that I use. I could use sulphuric acid. This is a dibasic acid and its molecular build-up is H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid is 2HCL, because of this I would obtain different results. I could also use phosphoric acid, which is a tribasic acid, and its molecular build-up is H3PO4, I would also obtain different results if I used this type of acid. Nitric acid is a monobasic acid but its molecular build-up is HNO3, which is very similar to the molecular build-up of hydrochloric acid so the results that I would obtain from using this acid would be similar to the ones I already have, so I would not use this for any further experiments. The reason I could use a different type of acid for any further work is to find if the is a difference between them if their molecular build up is different. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series (zinc, aluminium, iron and lead) that way I could find the initial rate of reaction at 5 seconds for the higher concentrations of acid like 3.0M or 3.5M and I could find there relative activity. ...read more.

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