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An investigation into the factors affecting the temperature rise of water heated electrically.

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Introduction

An Investigation Into the Factors Affecting The Temperature Rise of Water Heated Electrically Planning Aim: The aim of this investigation is to determine the factors affecting the temperature rise of water which is being heated electrically. Variables: The variables in this experiment are: 1) Time 2) The Power Of The Heater 3) The Mass Of Water 4) The Temperature Rise The Possible Experiments There are several experiments which can be carried out to investigate the factors affecting water being heated electrically. 1) Varying the mass of water used and the temperature rise and keeping the power of the heater and the time fixed. In this experiment the mass of water would be varied and keeping the power of the heater the same, the temperature rise could be record to produce an array of results. 2) Varying the power of the heater and the temperature rise, and keeping the mass of water and the time taken fixed. In this experiment the power of the heater would be varied and he again the temperature rise would be record to take results. 3) Finally the time could be varied with the temperature rise being varied, keeping the power and mass constant. In this experiment the time the heater was left on would be varied and the temperature rise would be recorded. From these 3 I have decided to choose 1) because number 3 is trivial, it is too simple and will not tell me anything I do not already know. ...read more.

Middle

Average Final Temp. Average Temperature Rise (?t) 50g 0.02g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 23 39 16 60g 0.017g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 22.5 36.5 14 70g 0.014g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 21.5 33.5 12 80g 0.0125g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 22 32.5 10.5 90g 0.01g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 21.5 30.5 9 100g 0.01g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 22.5 30 7.5 110g 0.009g 5 Minutes 3 I 4.4 V 3 � 4.4 = 13.2 W 21 29 8 Abc=Anomalous Results Analysis Of Evidence The graphs I have shown were best drawn as a line graphs as you can see on the following pages. The graphs on the following pages show a clear declining curve. The graphs show that the temperature rise of water is proportional to the mass of water that is heated. The graph follows a straight line until reaching the mass of 90g where it begins to level off. The line of best fit I have drawn clearly shows the direction of which the graph is trying to create. One anomaly has occurred, at 110g the temperature rise seems to be greater than that at 100g of water. This is slightly puzzling as surely the temperature rise should decrease because there is more water to heat in the same amount of time. ...read more.

Conclusion

The reason for the rise in temperature rise can be explained in many ways. The main reason I believe is that, when a big mass of water is used the temperature rise is so small that even the slightest variation in the experimental procedure could affect the results. Heat loss to air, heat loss to the cup, stirring the water, and impurities in the water could all make variations in the heating. With all these factors to consider it is not surprising that an anomalous result has occurred. Even so I believe that my results are good enough to draw a firm conclusion from. They are all reliable and accurate, even with the anomaly my prediction was correct and the line of best fit proves my results to be accurate. I can trust my results because the experiment was carried out with professionalism and accuracy to ensure a safe, fair test. I therefore trust my results to be accurate and correct. Further Work There are a few opportunities for further work including the 2 other experiments mentioned in my planning section. I could test the effect of varying the power of the heater while heating water. This would link up with my experiment and provide me with extra knowledge. Also carrying out the third experiment on varying time would provide me with interesting information which would further extend my investigation. Another experiment that I think would be interesting is varying impurities in the water and discovering how impurities affect the time taken to heat water. ?? ?? ?? ?? Nick Dyer UVA 28/04/2007 1 ...read more.

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This is a good account of a water heating experiment. It contains a well thought out experiment to confirm the relationship between water mass and heating. The report does not go into much detail about why certain aspects effect heating rate. As a candidate you should always ensure that you conduct a larger number of in this case masses and at least three repeats to establish an average. All calculations should be included in your report.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 01/12/2012

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