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An Investigation into the factors that affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

An Investigation into the factors that affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid There are 5 major influences on the rate of reaction. These are: > The surface area of any solid reactants > The concentration of the reactants > The temperature at which the reaction is carried out > The presence of a catalyst > The influence of light on some reactions The surface area affects the rate of reaction because the larger the surface area the greater the surface for the liquid or solution to react on. Therefore more energy is released. The concentration affects the rate of reaction because the higher the concentration the greater the rate of reaction. There are more particles in solution and therefore more collisions. This is releases more energy. An increase in the temperature increases the rate of reaction because as you increase the temperature the particles move more quickly and this results in lots more collisions between particles. The presence of a catalyst changes the rate of reaction because a catalyst is a chemical, which provides a surface on which the reaction can occur and thus it changes the reaction path. A catalyst also remains unused and chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Also it would be quite easy to dilute the hydrochloric acid with water. I have not chosen temperature because the reading taken might not be as accurate as possible and even the slightest mistake could effect the results. I have not chosen surface area because I believe that it would be difficult to calculate the surface area precisely. I couldn't investigate the affect a catalyst has on the rate of reaction because none of the chemicals that are going to be used in the reaction can act like a catalyst. Prediction I aim to dilute the hydrochloric acid and obtain 10 solutions of different concentration. I predict that the higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction. This is because the higher the concentration the more particles collide together and cause activation energy. This is because there are more particles in the solution. I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased the time taken for the reaction to occur will decrease. Measurements To work out the rate of reaction I will measure the concentration of the hydrochloric acid (HCl). This will be done by diluting the 2.0 mol/dm cubed concentration of HCl with water. This will be done to obtain 10 solutions of HCl ranging from 0.2 mol/dm cubed to 2.0 mol/dm cubed. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because of any dangers that could be present whilst the experiment is being carried out. Also, they must be worn because when the calcium carbonate reacts with the hydrochloric solution, the reaction might bubble or fizz and some of the solution may start to spit out and could be dangerous if it went into someone's eyes. All pupils must look at the bottle of hydrochloric acid carefully and recognise the hazardous symbols on it. They must also know all the other hazardous symbols. They must all follow the safety rules and have knowledge of the laboratory rules. All bags must be kept outside and all stools underneath the tables to avoid anyone tripping up when move around the classroom. There must be no running around the laboratory because it could be very dangerous. The experiment mustn't be done sitting down. Remember! When taking readings of either the water or the hydrochloric acid to read off the bottom of the meniscus. This is to make the measurements as accurate as possible. A preliminary experiment should be carried out if possible so that the method can be tested out and also any problems can be corrected before the experiment is actually carried out. . ?? ?? ?? ?? Amanpreet Pattar 5* ...read more.

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