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# An investigation into the factors that affect the rate of reactions.

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Introduction

An investigation into the factors that affect the rate of reactions Aim My aim is to find out how concentration affects the rate of the reaction between the compound calcium carbonate (in the form of marble chips) and the solution hydrochloric acid. Variable selected During the experiment I am going to change the concentration of the hydrochloric acid by adding water at varied ratios. Variables kept constant For the experiment I am going to keep the mass of marble chips constant and attempt also to keep the surface area of the marble chips constant (by picking ones that look similar and are roughly the same size, shape and mass). I am also hoping to keep the time I am allowing the reactants to react constant, the temperature constant and the pressure within the conical flask constant. Prediction After studying reaction rates I predict that by doubling the concentration of the acid during the experiment the rate of reaction will double therefore I predict that concentration and rate of reaction are directly proportional. This is due to the increase of hydrochloric acid particles, which makes it more likely for the particles to react with the calcium carbonate particles. This means there will be an increase in the number of collisions, which in result increase the reaction rate and also the production of carbon dioxide. From my results from the preliminary I can predict that the concentration and the reaction rate is directly proportional until the hydrochloric acid runs out of reactant. ...read more.

Middle

These can be obtained by diluting the 2 molar solution in the following ways: for 1.5 molar mix 15cm3 of hydrochloric acid with 5 cm3 of water, for 1molar, mix) 9. To ensure the accuracy of these results repeat steps 1-8 up to three more times. Safety 1. Wear safety goggles to protect your eyes. 2. Read instructions of how to do the experiment before starting. 3. Read labels on chemical bottles before using, as hydrochloric acid is an irritant. 4. Replace bungs straight away. 5. Wash of any spillages on the skin with water immediately. 6. Pour the solution produced through the sieve, collecting the marble chips, and therefore not blocking the sink (remember never to throw solids down the drain, always dispose of them properly) 7. always remember to clean all spillages after the experiment is over. Keeping the other variables constant To keep the other variables such as the surface area and mass of the marble chips constant I will have to use my own judgement and a top pan balance. I will weigh out 10 grams of marble chips before each test and keep this mass constant. I will keep the time constant by timing each reaction for one minute. Preliminary work The preliminary work helped me to improve the method for the investigation and also gave me a few ideas on how the results would turn out, which in turn helped me to decided on which concentrations to use. ...read more.

Conclusion

The amount of carbon dioxide then can no longer dissolve because the solution becomes saturated. Similarly the first anomaly on the graph for the 0.5 molar solution may have been caused by the same problem that caused the anomaly stated in the previous paragraph. However the second anomaly could have been created by a sudden opening of a large surface area to the hydrochloric acid under circumstances such as the acid corroding through the marble chip into a hollow within it or if a particularly (not mixed up properly) high concentration of HCl within the solution drifted over a piece of marble. Evaluation: I believe that the nature of my experiment was accurate in showing how acid rain (Hydrochloric acid) can corrode marble (chips). I believe that my method was accurate to an extent. However there were possible errors. E.g. there is a small amount of time where gas can be lost between when the solution is put into the side arm conical flask and when the bung is placed into the test tube. My results may not have been perfectly precise due to dissolved Co2. If I were able to repeat my experiment I would use a data-logger on my gas syringe, and a more accurate syringe with a larger range as one of my biggest errors came from having to reset the syringe during the experiment if the maximum amount was exceeded. For further work I would wish to be able to repeat the experiment with the improvements I have stated and then try to do the same thing with different forms of calcium carbonate and then with different acids (e.g. sulphuric acid) ...read more.

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