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An Investigation into the factors, which affect the electrical resistance of a length of wire.

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Introduction

An Investigation into the factors, which affect the electrical resistance of a length of wire Planning From previous sources I have gathered information on resistance in a wire. I have found that electrons move more easily through some conductors than others. This is due to the resistance in a conductor, which is the opposing force to the current of the electrons in the wire. A good conductor is one, which has low resistance, and therefore the electrons can flow more freely whereas a bad conductor is one, which has high resistance, and the electrons flow with more difficulty. Resistance in created when the electrons going through the wire collide with the ions in the lattice structure of the metal and ricochet, losing speed and releasing some its energy in the process. Resistance is ohms (?) and the best way to find the resistance the equation of: Resistance of a conductor= Voltage across the conductor Current through the conductor Or: R= V I Also from investigation I have found that the four factors, which affect the resistance in a wire, are: * The length of the wire * The cross sectional area of the wire * The material of the wire * The temperature of the wire Prediction I have decided to test the effect of the length and the cross-sectional area of the wire on the electrical resistance as my experiment due the resources and time available. ...read more.

Middle

Results This table shows the results I took from the first experiment in which I used wire with an SWG of 22. Length Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (?) 30.0 3.13 2.88 1.09 35.0 3.27 2.59 1.26 40.0 3.38 2.37 1.43 45.0 3.46 2.26 1.53 50.0 3.61 2.05 1.76 55.0 3.66 1.94 1.89 60.0 3.71 1.84 2.02 65.0 3.79 1.76 2.15 70.0 3.84 1.64 2.34 75.0 3.95 1.56 2.39 80.0 4.02 1.48 2.72 This table shows the results of my second experiment in which I used wire with the SWG of 34. Length Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (?) 30.0 3.94 0.66 5.97 35.0 4.08 0.56 7.29 40.0 3.97 0.44 9.02 45.0 4.23 0.42 10.07 50.0 4.32 0.42 10.28 55.0 4.37 0.39 11.21 60.0 4.39 0.36 12.19 65.0 4.42 0.34 13.00 70.0 4.40 0.31 14.19 75.0 4.43 0.29 15.28 80.0 4.45 0.28 15.89 This table shows the results of my third experiment in which I used wire with the SWG of 36. Length Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (?) 30.0 4.84 0.74 6.54 35.0 4.91 0.69 7.12 40.0 5.00 0.62 8.06 45.0 5.08 0.55 9.24 50.0 5.13 0.52 9.87 55.0 5.22 0.45 11.60 60.0 5.29 0.41 12.90 65.0 5.30 0.41 12.93 70.0 5.32 0.38 14.00 75.0 5.40 0.36 15.00 80.0 5.41 0.33 16.39 I calculated the resistance using the following formula: Resistance = Voltage / Current I also got ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation I think that the results I got were good and gave me good straight lines on my graph. There were some anomalous results, which were probably due to the wire heating up and therefore changing the resistance of the wire, which is quite possible as I used a relatively high voltage and it was probably the source of the large majority of my errors. Another thing could have been due to the fact that the wire was not absolutely straight and therefore there could have been deviations in the length of the wire. This would have meant that not all my results were completely accurate. I think the apparatus I used and the way I recorded my results worked well as a got a good set of results that I could draw a clear conclusion from. They clearly showed that the length of the wire was directly proportional to the resistance and that the cross sectional area of the wire was inversely proportional to the resistance. My experiment probably would have been more accurate if I had taken several readings for each variation in the experiment to get an average and if I had used previously cooled wire so that it ruled out the possibility of bad results due to the temperature of the wire changing. Also I could have used straightened wire to make sure it was a fair test. ...read more.

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