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An investigation into the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

An investigation into the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Aim The aim of this experiment is to see how a variable will alter the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Magnesium is comparitvely highly reactive. It burns in oxygen with a white light and reacts quickly and vigorously with hydrochloric acid. The magnesium bubbles and fizzes in the hydrochloric acid. The reaction is an exothermic reaction and lasts for only a short period of time. The gas given off from the reaction is hydrogen, and a small amount of magnesium chloride solution is left in the beaker. The word and symbol equation for the reaction: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg + 2Hcl MgCl2 + H2 Solid Liquid Liquid Gas Preliminary Work I have carried out some preliminary work prior to this investigation, involving rates of reactions. From these I found out about the collision theory. More particles of the acid are available; therefore there was more chance that the H+ ions in the acid would collide. I tested the rates of reactions with hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. In this experiment I was looking at how magnesium reacted with hydrochloric acid at different strengths (using water to dilute the acid). ...read more.

Middle

Problems I expected some problems to occur during the experiments, however there was really only one upset. This was the fact that when I tested the 0.2M it was very slow and took a long time. So long that I did not have time to finish the experiment. It took over 50 minutes and was inconclusive. Therefore I decided to test more concentrations of hydrochloric acid to make up for my loss. However I could not test 0.9M, as this would upset any trend in my concentrations, therefore I decided to test extra four concentrations: 0.3M, 0.5M, 0.7M and 0.9M. I now had a collection of eight concentrations. A problem with making these concentrations was that I had to use 50ml of solution to prepare them. Therefore I decided to just half the concentrations I made up to give me 25ml. Below is a table showing the dilutions of extra the concentrations: Concentration (M) Amount of Hcl (ml) Amount of H20 0.9 45 5 0.7 35 15 0.5 25 25 0.3 15 35 I tested these concentrations exactly as I did the others and recorded my results. I was pleased with this modification as it allowed me to test a wider range of results to give me a clearer picture and more accurate readings. Results First set of results Concentration Hcl (M) Time taken for Mg to disappear(s) ...read more.

Conclusion

If I had done the opposite end tested smaller molarities for example :0.1(M) the experiment would have taken a very long time, this is because there are not as many molecules available to react in the Hcl and it would have taken a lot longer for the magnesium atoms to find and collide with the Hcl molecules. Evaluation From this investigation I think that I have achieved my aim of finding the affect that surface area of the magnesium ribbon had on the rate of reaction between the hydrochloric acid and magnesium. I think that I obtained enough results to give me a detailed graph and conclusion. I was pleased with my results and were very accurate given the conditions of a classroom. I am pleased with how my graph formed, from it I can tell that the surface area is proportional to the rate of reaction, as was predicted. There are no major anomolos results which shows that my experiment was carried out with some accuracy. If I could repeat the experiment I would try to make it more accurate, If possible I would use more accurate and precise equipment. I would have used a ruler with smaller divisions to measure the size of the magnesium ribbon. I would also like to use some kind of machine or incubator to keep the experiment at a constant temperature. ...read more.

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