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An Investigation into what factors affect the amount of Carbon Dioxide produced in the reaction between Marble Chips and Diluted Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

An Investigation into what factors affect the amount of Carbon Dioxide produced in the reaction Between Marble Chips and Diluted Hydrochloric Acid Aim The aim of this experiment is to see if by changing the factors of experiment, will it affect the amount of CO produced by the reactions. The factors are that we can change the concentration of the acid (hydrochloric acid), which is the factor I have changed, but there are many more variables, as we will see later on in the investigation. Background Equation In this experiment the collision theory is used. This is way to prove that from this theory the rate of reaction will increase as the concentration increases and so the yield will increase. This will happen if the marble chips are in excess and so the yield of gas will then be high, but if the acid is in excess then the yield of gas will be the same. We do know that if the concentration of acid is increased, the reaction will go faster. We can see why from these diagrams. In the first diagram we have very few acid particles and so this means that there is not much of a chance of an acid particle hitting a calcium atom. In diagram two the acid is more concentrated so there are more acid particles and there is now a bigger chance of a collision happening. In the diagram there is a collision happening and if there is enough energy, there will be a reaction, which will successfully happen. If the energy is too low then the particle will bounce off and start again. ...read more.

Middle

They would only be affected if the crystal were really too big. The volume and the weight were controlled by being accurate and take time to get the right amounts. The temperature I could not control, but the temperature in the room stay about constant so it did not affect the experiment. I used the same acid from the same batch we were given. The safety measures taken were to wear safety specs and the hydrochloric acid is an irritant and harmful. So we stood up while working and we did not splash the chemicals around and we cleaned up if some were spilt and the same with broken glass. While the experiment was in progress we stood away from it. Obtaining Evidence I change my method first by doing more concentrations, I did more concentration so I could give a bigger range of results and so that I could compare the result better as there would be a clearer pattern by doing more test. Also I did some repeats so I could get an average result do I could plot it as one line on the graph. I will measure to the near whole number and to no decimal place as it will be easy to read of cylinder and the margin of error is reduced. The evidence is as reliable as I could get it with the apparatus. Also with the fact that there will be soon human error in the experiment and so it is not all down to the apparatus. As you can see by the table below there are lots of readings and so there should be sufficient data. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results were 6 to 10 cm of gas out every time, which is to do with the same reasons as above. One big problem was collecting the gas, because as it had to be full of water it was hard to put an upturned cylinder into the water without losing some water and so making the results less accurate and not reliable. The chip sizes were all different so I could not get a constant surface area so it meant that this would affect my result, as the amounts of gas would be different. The temp of the room could not be control so this may have affected the experiment, but I think the temp was about constant though out the experiment. The chip sizes were all different, but I tied to get the smallest chips so getting a bigger surface area. The way I changed the concentrations meant that the concentrations were not 100% correct so the result cannot be 100% accurate and reliable. There was a good amount of data produced and the only way of getting a better conclusion is by doing more repeat, but also get better apparatus e.g. more accurate and reliable. The improvements are that the corks fit the test tubes so that gas will not escape. Also get chips, which are about the same size. Better way of collecting the gas more accurately. The extension work can be that we use different acids to see the difference between them. Also we could see how heat affects the experiment. We could also do different surface areas to see which one will produce the most gas in a certain time limit. We could final to higher concentrations such as 3 and 4 molar to see the differences. ...read more.

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