• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation of the effect of a named abiotic factor upon Marram grass distribution in a sand dune system

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An investigation of the effect of a named abiotic factor upon Marram grass distribution in a sand dune system Aim: to investigate the effect of a named abiotic factor upon Marram grass distribution in a sand dune system Background information: Marram grass is a xerophytic plant, meaning that it is a plant that is adapted to living in a dry arid habitat. Therefore it is most likely to be found on sand dunes, where the water is minimal and also where, closer to the shore (if the sand dunes are by the sea), there is a higher salt content, lowering the water potential. Marram grass has many adaptations to living in the sand dunes, for example its leaf blades curve with the stomata on the inside, to reduce evaporation due to heat or wind (transpiration), also this provides a moist microclimate around the stomata (ref. Biozone international). Marram grass blades also have leaf hairs, which hold moist air around the leaf to prevent evaporation. Marram grass has an extensive root system to gain as much water as possible from the water deficient habitat. Furthermore Marram grass has a thick waxy cuticle, reducing water loss by evaporation and also, because it is shiny, reflects some of the heat. Sand Dune Succession Sand is deposited by the sea on the shore, and the sand is blown by the wind away from the sea, an object on the beach causes eddy currents and thus the sand is deposited around the object, the sand dune has began. ...read more.

Middle

For this investigation, I have selected to use quadrat sampling, as it is the most useful at determining populations, and also it allows for a systematic approach. Upon arriving at the sand hills, I shall get a one meter squared quadrat. I will place the quadrat at the beginning of a white dune, ignoring a pioneer dune, as there aren't likely to be any Marram grass populations. When I have placed my quadrat down, I shall use a temperature probe to record the temperature, I shall place the probe into the grass as to get the exact temperature, that Marram grass is living in. Then I shall estimate the population of Marram grass in that quadrat in percentages, for example if the quadrat is half full with Marram grass, the estimate is going to be 50%. Unfortunately, I cannot separate the quadrat into fractions, because the holes in the fractions (made by a string) would be too small for the Marram grass to fit through, nevertheless it would mean that I would get a more accurate estimate. I shall record my estimate in a results table. Subsequently I shall flip the quadrat to the right, whilst keeping the right side firmly on the floor, and flipping the left side, repeating the above procedure, finally I shall flip to the right again and repeat the method. ...read more.

Conclusion

? 3 2 ? ? 3 3 ? ? 4 1 ? ? 4 2 ? ? 4 3 ? ? 5 1 ? ? 5 2 ? ? 5 3 ? ? 6 1 ? ? 6 2 ? ? 6 3 ? ? ... ... ... ... Null hypothesis I predict that the temperature will not affect the Marram grass distribution, due to the reason that as the plant is xerophytic, it is adapted to living in harsh environments, for example it curls up to stop transpiration, it has hairs which hold moist air around the plant to stop evaporation and also it has a reduced number of stomata meaning that there is not going to be as much evaporation, all to counter the effect of temperature so therefore it will occupy the same area even when the temperatures vary. So the temperature will not be closely related to the growth rate of the grass. This means that the grass will grow evenly throughout the sand dune system, in places where the grass is exposed to a lot of sun and in places where there is a lot of shade. I predict that the spearman rank test will not show any strong correlation between the variables of temperature and growth distribution, and that a scatter graph and particularly a kite graph will both have no gradients, as the temperature has not effect. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of a germination inhibitor on the germination of seeds.

    3 star(s)

    26 13 2 0 0 47 45 20 2 0 0 Total 135 58 15 0 0 0 210 123 84 12 0 0 249 175 112 15 0 0 264 222 146 19 0 0 * Concentration of tomato inhibitor in %.

  2. Photosynthesis Investigation

    And the leaf has not got one or more of the factors that needs for a plant to photosynthesise For this experiment I used a leaf from a plant, which had been photosynthesising and has all the four factors needed to photosynthesis so the colour patches on the leaf showed the colour of blackish bluish.

  1. Discuss the various adaptations of vertebrates that enable them to live in marine conditions.

    It is also interesting to note that the pinnipeds have a much greater control over the shape of their eyeball enabling them to see both in and out of water. A much more effective method for predation and communication in water is the use of sound.

  2. Three separate experiments which are to be carried out to investigate a plant's unique ...

    I will then, using a scale I have been given, calculate how many stomata there are in every cm2. I will then multiply the number of stomata in every cm2 by the surface area of each leaf in cm2 to work out how many stomata (relatively roughly)

  1. An investigation in to the effect of temperature on the release of pigment from ...

    I will of course note my results (the readings of the light abrorption) from each test fluid. I will use blue filter with the colorimeter to measure the amount of light absorption from the test fluids because this is the complimentary colour of red pigment, hence the measurement of the light absorption will be extremely accurate.

  2. The investigation is aiming to look at transpiration.

    Water moves into the root hairs down the water potential gradient. Although the soil water contains some inorganic ions in the solution, it is a relatively dilute solution and so has a relatively high water potential. This process is known as osmosis.

  1. An Investigation into Species Diversity with distance along a Pingo.

    The more water there is in the soil the greater the rate of osmosis will be. Chalk grasslands however are very porous and contain little water. The amount of water is dependent on the depth of the soil layer (on top of the bedrock).

  2. Investigating the abiotic factors that affect the size of Ivy leaves in shaded and ...

    and the universal energy-supplying molecule ATP, with oxygen gas given off as a waste product. To find out how the NADPH and ATP are used to make carbohydrates we must move on and consider the reactions of the light-independent stage.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work