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An investigation of the factors which affect the reaction of acid rain on limestone.

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Introduction

An investigation of the factors which affect the reaction of acid rain on limestone Aim: To investigate the factors which affect the reaction of acid rain on limestone. Background Knowledge / Scientific Knowledge: * Acid reacts with limestone to produce Carbon dioxide. (CO2 is the product of the reaction). * Temperature:- As more heat is given to the molecules of the reactants, they gain kinetic energy, and move more quickly, and violently. * Acid rain causes the erosion or weathering of limestone. * Equation for Hydrochloric acid is: HCl * Equation for Limestone is: Ca CO3 * The reaction between limestone and acid rain is exothermic - it gives out heat. * Limestone is a calcium carbonate, and it is alkali. * Greater surface area = quicker reaction, because there are more surfaces for the other reactant to work on. The Collision Theory: A reaction occurs when the molecules of two or more reactants collide into one another. Then the reaction takes place. After the collision and subsequent reaction has taken place, 'products' are produced. In the case of this experiment carbon dioxide is the product of the reaction between limestone and acid rain - basically hydrochloric acid and water. The equation for this reaction is 2HCl + CaCO3 -> CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O Prediction 1. ...read more.

Middle

* make sure that none of the gas escapes from the syringe. * make sure that none of the acid is added to the limestone, before the timed period. * make sure that the acid is at the correct temperature, before starting the experiment. If not, then my results will be inaccurate. * make sure that I replace each piece of limestone before each experiment. * make sure that all the equipment I use is in the correct, and in the most efficient state before starting the experiment. Results for method 1: Temperature Mass before/g Average/g Mass after/g Average/g Concentration /�C 1 2 3 1 2 3 of acid/M 10 | 0.26 0.26 0.26 | 0.25 | 0 0 0 | 0 | 0.5 10 | 0.42 0.41 0.43 | 0.42 | 0.41 0.41 0.41 | 0.41 | 1.0 10 | 0.28 0.26 0.27 | 0.27 | 0.24 0.25 0.24 | 0.24 | 2.0 20 | 0.37 0.42 0.41 | 0.40 | 0.37 0.38 0.36 | 0.37 | 0.5 20 | 0.41 0.40 0.41 | 0.41 | 0.40 0.38 0.39 | 0.39 | 1.0 20 | 0.24 0.25 0.24 | 0.24 | 0.15 0.18 0.20 | 0.18 | 2.0 30 | 0.21 0.23 0.25 | 0.23 | 0.25 0.22 0.23 | 0.23 | 0.5 30 | 0.25 0.26 0.28 | 0.26 | 0.17 0.16 0.18 | 0.17 | 1.0 30 ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe this because the rate of reaction doubles every 10�C rise in temperature, as the molecules gain more kinetic energy, and will collide more. My results prove this as you can see between 10 and 30�C. My results in Table 2 show that with a greater concentration of acid the greater the amount Carbon dioxide is produced and therefore a greater reaction has taken place. In method 1 the reaction doubled when the concentration of the acid doubled, but this is not happening in method 2 as the volume of Carbon dioxide has only slightly increased when the molarity of the acid has been doubled. I can offer no explanation for this. Method: For this experiment I had to modify the method as there was not enough pressure produced by the carbon dioxide to move the syringe, so I had to use the beehive method instead. This method worked reasonably effectively, but occasionally before starting the experiment an air bubble went into the measuring cylinder, so I had to re-dip the measuring cylinder - that is probably why there are some inaccuracies in the results, especially in the results when temperature = 10�C / Molarity of acid = 1.0. Summary: Method 1 is the more accurate method although it is much more complicated than method 2. There are more things to observe and ensure that they are correct. ...read more.

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