• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation of the factors which affect the reaction of acid rain on limestone.

Extracts from this document...


An investigation of the factors which affect the reaction of acid rain on limestone Aim: To investigate the factors which affect the reaction of acid rain on limestone. Background Knowledge / Scientific Knowledge: * Acid reacts with limestone to produce Carbon dioxide. (CO2 is the product of the reaction). * Temperature:- As more heat is given to the molecules of the reactants, they gain kinetic energy, and move more quickly, and violently. * Acid rain causes the erosion or weathering of limestone. * Equation for Hydrochloric acid is: HCl * Equation for Limestone is: Ca CO3 * The reaction between limestone and acid rain is exothermic - it gives out heat. * Limestone is a calcium carbonate, and it is alkali. * Greater surface area = quicker reaction, because there are more surfaces for the other reactant to work on. The Collision Theory: A reaction occurs when the molecules of two or more reactants collide into one another. Then the reaction takes place. After the collision and subsequent reaction has taken place, 'products' are produced. In the case of this experiment carbon dioxide is the product of the reaction between limestone and acid rain - basically hydrochloric acid and water. The equation for this reaction is 2HCl + CaCO3 -> CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O Prediction 1. ...read more.


* make sure that none of the gas escapes from the syringe. * make sure that none of the acid is added to the limestone, before the timed period. * make sure that the acid is at the correct temperature, before starting the experiment. If not, then my results will be inaccurate. * make sure that I replace each piece of limestone before each experiment. * make sure that all the equipment I use is in the correct, and in the most efficient state before starting the experiment. Results for method 1: Temperature Mass before/g Average/g Mass after/g Average/g Concentration /�C 1 2 3 1 2 3 of acid/M 10 | 0.26 0.26 0.26 | 0.25 | 0 0 0 | 0 | 0.5 10 | 0.42 0.41 0.43 | 0.42 | 0.41 0.41 0.41 | 0.41 | 1.0 10 | 0.28 0.26 0.27 | 0.27 | 0.24 0.25 0.24 | 0.24 | 2.0 20 | 0.37 0.42 0.41 | 0.40 | 0.37 0.38 0.36 | 0.37 | 0.5 20 | 0.41 0.40 0.41 | 0.41 | 0.40 0.38 0.39 | 0.39 | 1.0 20 | 0.24 0.25 0.24 | 0.24 | 0.15 0.18 0.20 | 0.18 | 2.0 30 | 0.21 0.23 0.25 | 0.23 | 0.25 0.22 0.23 | 0.23 | 0.5 30 | 0.25 0.26 0.28 | 0.26 | 0.17 0.16 0.18 | 0.17 | 1.0 30 ...read more.


I believe this because the rate of reaction doubles every 10�C rise in temperature, as the molecules gain more kinetic energy, and will collide more. My results prove this as you can see between 10 and 30�C. My results in Table 2 show that with a greater concentration of acid the greater the amount Carbon dioxide is produced and therefore a greater reaction has taken place. In method 1 the reaction doubled when the concentration of the acid doubled, but this is not happening in method 2 as the volume of Carbon dioxide has only slightly increased when the molarity of the acid has been doubled. I can offer no explanation for this. Method: For this experiment I had to modify the method as there was not enough pressure produced by the carbon dioxide to move the syringe, so I had to use the beehive method instead. This method worked reasonably effectively, but occasionally before starting the experiment an air bubble went into the measuring cylinder, so I had to re-dip the measuring cylinder - that is probably why there are some inaccuracies in the results, especially in the results when temperature = 10�C / Molarity of acid = 1.0. Summary: Method 1 is the more accurate method although it is much more complicated than method 2. There are more things to observe and ensure that they are correct. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the factors affecting the temperature rise of water heated electrically.

    4 star(s)

    To ensure the test is reliable and the results are accurate 7 different masses will be used and each experiment on these different masses will be carried out twice to ensure that any anomalies can be removed. Safety The teacher has informed me that the one safety issue is to

  2. To investigate three factors that affect the rate of cooling a liquid and to ...

    Experiment 2 From looking at the results from experiment 2, I can see again that the predictions that I made were correct. I predicted that the beaker with least water in it would cool the quickest and that is what happened.

  1. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    present in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea, could be due to the fact that the Spinach Oleracea was boiled in distilled water. Experiment B 5Fe2+ + 5C2O42- + 3MnO4 + 24H+ 5Fe3+ + 10CO2 + 3Mn2+ + 12H2O The equation above shows that 3 moles of Potassium Manganate (VII) (aq)

  2. The effect of Acid Rain on Seed Germination.

    If less liquid is the Petri-dish then it may take longer for the seed to swell and burst and in turn my final results will be affected, rendering them unreliable. If too much liquid is put into one of the dishes then the seeds might be flooded which would lead to a lack of oxygen inside the Petri-dish.

  1. To investigate the effect of concentration on the temperature rise, heat evolved and heat ...

    because HCl and NaOH in a particular volume will give same amount of moles of H+ ions and OH- ions. So when the temperature reached maximum it is obvious that all the H+ ions and OH- ions have bonded, and no more H+ ions left in the mixture to react.

  2. Titrating Sodium hydroxide with an unknown molarity, against hydrochloric acid to find its' molarity.

    were as precise as possible: * Ensuring that the temperature was constant throughout the titrations; as temperature affects the rates of reactions. The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction, so if the temperature increased towards the end of the experiment, the end points would have been reached faster than before.

  1. To investigate the factors that affect the amount energy produced in neutralisation reactions.

    Properties: They change litmus paper from red to blue. They are electrolytes. In addition many alkalis have a soapy feel. All bases and alkalis, except ammonia, are metal oxides or metal hydroxides. CAUTION: Many alkalis may be corrosive and poisonous. Example: sodium hydroxide is often called caustic soda. Caustic means 'burning'.

  2. Rates of Reaction Investigation

    when added to the soil, increased the amount of soil phosphorus available to plants. This discovery gave rise to an increase in the commercial production of sulphuric acid and led to improved methods of manufacture. Manufacture Two processes for the production of sulphuric acid are in use today.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work