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# An Investigation of the weathering of limestone.

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Introduction

An Investigation of the weathering of limestone. Purpose of experiment: To investigate if the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction of the weathering of limestone. Plan: We will situate hydrochloric acid with limestone (calcium carbonate) and we will adjust the concentration of the acid to determine if the dilution of the acid affects the speed of the reaction of the weathering of the limestone. Pre trial run: In the pre trial run we did a quick experiment to see if there were any problems that we needed to solve. We discovered that the dilute acid was going incredible slowly and we would not have enough time to do the experiment a number of times so we could get a good average in our final results. We established that if we constantly swirled the conical flask that the rate of the reaction would be much faster. We will do this in our concluding experiment but for all the different concentrations of acid. We also uncovered that we need to measure in seconds and not minutes and seconds as to make the results easier to understand and to comprehend the rate of reaction. I found the pre trial run essential to the experiment, as we could find out the measurements we will use, and to deliberate with another group so we can set our results together so we can be able to get a enhanced average, which will lead to a more precise rate of reaction. I will explain our measurements in a later paragraph. Safety: In the experiment I will be as safe as possible. ...read more.

Middle

When we are measuring the weight of the limestone to five grams we will measure to the nearest tenth of a gram to ensure accuracy. We cannot measure the volume of the acid and water as precisely as we would like to, we can just measure it in the measuring cylinder and judge the volume with our eye to see it we have got approximately 100ml of liquid. The time we will measure in seconds and not minutes and seconds so we can easily work out the rate of reaction. We will measure the time to the nearest hundredth of a second if the stopwatch goes into that time, if not we will go as precisely as we can to make it a fair test. We will try to make everything as precise as possible but unfortunately there will probably be occasional human error involved. Secondary Research: I searched the Internet and Encarta for research about acid rain, where the most is, and it's effects on limestone. In reference one from www.zephryus.demon.co.uk/geograghy/resources/environ/acis.html it states that acid rain has a lower pH number than vinegar making it so acidic that some things can't survive. Buildings are damaged, especially ones made from limestone. The acid eats away at the buildings and they can't survive when the acid comes into contact with it. Reference two is from the same website and explains more developed countries have now realized that acid rain can't continue as it will damage too many things and will damage the environment for us and for future generations. Reference 3 from www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/Acid_Rain/Older/Buildings.html includes a quote from Robert Angus Smith in 1856 who first discovered acid rain and explains that where fossils fuels are burnt to give us energy that more acid rain is present. ...read more.

Conclusion

At 20% acid it took longest because only 20% of all the particles were reactive acid particles, so that the chance of a successful collision is quite small. Whereas in 100% acid where it only took on average 14.33 seconds to collect the gas, this is because that there was only reactive acid particles can have a collision with the limestone as it is not dilute with water. The rate of reaction is measured in mils/sec. At the most dilute acid, which only had 20% of reactive acid particles in it so it has a slow rate of reaction, with 0.3 millimetres of gas per second. In 100% acid it's rate of reaction was 1.74 millimetres of gas per second that is the fastest we recorded. This both supports and undermines my prediction. I did predict the trends that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the gas was collected. I also predicted this for the same scientific reasons that I mention above the diagram. But in my prediction, I believed that the rate of reaction would be five times faster in 100% acid than in 20% acid, in fact it was more than that, but contrary to that on my graph the line of best fit misses the point I plotted for the rate of reaction at 100% acid, and it crosses instead at 1.5mils/sec which is five times as fast as the rate of reaction at 20% acid. I did account for the slowing down of reaction explained in the diagram above, but I did not realize how much it would account for. ...read more.

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