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An Investigation on the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

An Investigation on the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Chemical Background When sodium thiosulphate is mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid it makes a cloudy liquid of sodium chloride, water, sulphur (this makes the liquid cloudy), and it gives of the gas sulphur dioxide. A precipitate of sulphur is made. Sodium + hydrochloric = sodium + water + sulphur + sulphur Thiosulphate acid chloride dioxide The Chemical reaction happens as the particles collide because they have energy. As they collide they make, sodium chloride, water, sulphur, and sulphur dioxide. A reaction happens quicker when there are more thiosulphate particles to hydrochloric acid particles. Aim The aim is to find out how does the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid change as the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate changes? Prediction I predict that the greater the ratio of sodium thiosulphate to water the quicker the solution will cloud over as the participate of sulphur forms. To increase the rate of reaction you need to increase the number of collisions between the reacting particles. In this case the more thiosulphate there is to collide with the hydrochloric acid the quicker a reaction will happen. When the thiosulphate is diluted by distilled water there are less particles to collide with the hydrochloric acid there for the rate of reaction is slower. ...read more.

Middle

I also had two measuring cylinders one for the thiosulphate and water and the other for the hydrochloric acid. As a safety measure I wore glasses so that I didn't get any hydrochloric acid in my eyes by mistake. Also when the cross (used the same piece of paper with a cross each time) had disappeared I got rid of the solution as quickly as possible so I didn't inhale too much of the sulphur dioxide. I used the same flask each time but washed it out thoroughly. Apparatus Stop Clock, 2 Measuring cylinders, 1 Flask, 1 bottle of Sodium Thiosulphate, 1 bottle of Hydrochloric acid, I bottle of Distilled Water, A stop clock, Safety glasses, A piece of paper marked with a cross. Method � Collect all the apparatus needed. � Put on the safety glasses before starting the experiment. � Measure out 50cm cubed of sodium thiosulphate in to the flask � Then measure out 5cm cubed of Hydrochloric acid. � When adding the hydrochloric acid to the sodium thiosulphate in the flask, immediately start the stop clock. � Swirl the flask 3 times to mix, then place the flask on top of the paper with the cross. � Watch the cross from above. As soon as the cross disappears stop the stop clock. ...read more.

Conclusion

The first three results that I got the time taken for the cross to disappear was under a minute, but after that were the ratio of water is greater then the sulphur thiosulphate the time taken becomes much longer. This happens because there is more water so less particles of thiosulphate can react with the hydrochloric acid, and make sulphur, which makes the solution cloudy. Evaluation For this experiment changes I would have made would have been to use more accurate equipment for measuring the Sodium thiosulphate, water and the hydrochloric acid. I would have chosen to use a burette or a pipette, which would ensure that I wouldn't get any anomalous results. Also if I could do the experiment again I would find a better way of finding out when the solution turned totally cloudy so that light can't pass through it. Maybe if we used a light and a light sensitive device to tell when the solution is totally cloudy that would make the experiment more accurate. The way we conducted the experiment was not very precise as I was not always sure when the cross had completely disappeared and the stop clock was not always stopped exactly when I thought the cross was out of sight. I think that the whole experiment should have been carried out again because we did not always use the right pipette with the right solution, which probably affected the results in some way. ...read more.

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