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An investigation to determine the factors which affect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate (marble chips) and the concentration of Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

An investigation to determine the factors which affect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate (marble chips) and the concentration of Hydrochloric acid. Background knowledge Collision theory- In order for any reaction to occur the reacting particles needs to collide with sufficient energy to overcome the activation of he reaction. To make a reaction happen more quickly we either need to: > Increase the chance of collision occurring > Increase the energy collision > Both Aim The aim of the investigation is to determine the effect of varying the concentration, in the reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid. The equation for the reaction is: Hypothesis A reaction can only take place when particles collide. This process is based on random particle movement. So therefore, if you have more particles in a given volume the more likely they are to collide with one another. Resulting in a faster rate of reaction. The above hypothesis can be investigated by comparing the rate of reaction between the marble chips and hydrochloric acid using different concentration of hydrochloric acid. The hypothesis will be supported if the rate of reaction increases with increase in concentration of the hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

delivery tube > marble chips > goggles > thermometer > retort stand Diagram Apparatus for measuring the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. Method The experiment is set up as shown in the diagram. 50ml of acid are carefully measured and placed in the flask. The marble chip is rested in the neck of the flask and the bung and tube are inserted. The flask is turned upright at the same time the stop watch is started. The time taken to collect 40mlof carbon dioxide is measured and this volume is used as a measure of the rate of reaction. This procedure is repeated several times using different concentration of acid, using 40ml acid+10ml water; 30ml acid+20ml water; 20ml acid+30ml water and so on. Fair Test--Care must be taken to keep any other factors constant: For example: > The mass and surface area of the marble chips must be the same for each reading. > The total volume of acid must be 50ml in each case. > The temperature of the acid must be kept constant. Safety -I will also take some safety precautions: * Wear safety goggles-to prevent hazard material to come in contact the eye * Lab counts- to prevent ...read more.

Conclusion

The experiment should not take to long to conduct as we are limited for time, but at the same time should give us enough points to plot on the graph. I had only one anomalous result, this could be due to me miss reading the amount of gas given off. I could have made my results more accurate by sieving the marble chips( calcium carbonate) this would help make the chips similar sizes, therefore the surface area of the chips would stay the same. I could have also check the temperature every minute to see if it was constant. The other thing that I would like to investigate would be the experiment of time against amount of gas produced to show at which points the rate of reaction was at best curve/line of reaction. I would like to also investigate other factors, which affect the rate of a reaction like temperature and the volume of the hydrochloric acid and see how they would affect the rate of reaction. * For the evaluation you have to include all this * What difficulty you had with the experiment * Look at odd results and justify it * Suggestion for improvements ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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