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An Investigation to determine the factors which affect the rates of reaction between Marble Chips (CaCO3) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation to determine how acidic concentration will affect the rate of reaction between Marble Chips {Calcium Carbonate} (CaCO3) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) In my investigation I want to determine the factors which will affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, and how a certain factors affect the rate of reaction when CaCO3 is reacted with an excess of HCL. Rates of reaction are based on the collision theory, and the collision theory states that the following must happen for a reaction to take place: i) firstly a collision must take place between two reacting particles. ii) and a reaction will only result if the two colliding particles posses enough activation energy to react, otherwise they will just bounce off. The Equations: The equation of the reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid is shown below: Marble Chips + Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon (Calcium Chloride) Dioxide CaCO3 (s) + 2HCL (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + H20 (l) + CO2 (g) The Experiment: The way that we can calculate the rate of reaction is if we plot the initial rate of reaction against the variable. And the way that we can calculate the rate of the reaction is if we collect one of the waste products of the reaction, and for this reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid the waste product that I am going to collect will be Carbon Dioxide. There are two ways that I could collect and measure the carbon dioxide produced from the experiment. Gas Syringe: This measure the volume of gas given off by the experiment: Scales: The scales measures the amount of mass lost during the reaction as the gas is given off. Following a set of preliminary experiments I found that the best method to collect the gas given off was the scale method, as there was no need to read off a scale, this meant that it reduced the probability of human error. ...read more.

Middle

The rate of reaction increases in indirect proportion to the concentration. Therefore I can conclude that: The rate of reaction will increase in indirect proportion in relationship to the increase in concentration. I believe that this is the right conclusion to this experiment as when looking at the graph showing rate of reaction against concentration, it clearly shows that the rate of reaction is increasing in indirect proportionality. A curved line can be drawn through the points and, hence, indirect proportionality. N.B. The data from the table below has been taken from the exponential graph showing rate of reaction against concentration. Concentration (M) Rate of Reaction (g/s) Fraction Decimal 0.2 9/2000 0.0045 0.4 7/800 0.00875 0.8 39/2500 0.0156 1.0 47/2500 0.0188 1.6 49/2000 0.0245 2.0 27/1000 0.0270 Concentrations Increase 0.2 M 0.4 M 0.0045 0.00875 194 % 0.4 M 0.8 M 0.00875 0.0156 178 % 0.8 M 1.6 M 0.0156 0.0245 157 % 1.0 M 2.0 M 0.0188 0.027 144 % Average Increase: 168 % I believe that the results obtained from my experiment partially prove my prediction, as I predicted that 'the rate of reaction will double for every double in concentration'. This is simply proved by the table above. The data shown proves the prediction to an extent but not fully as the average increase is 168 % meaning a1 2/3 increase in the rate of reaction for every 200 % for every increase in concentration. So I can conclude that my prediction was partially proved. This is because when the concentration is lower, there are less reacting particles, therefore less collisions, and hence there are less successful collisions, hence fewer reactions take place. But when we increase the number reacting particles i.e. increases the concentration of HCL we increase the number of reacting particles in proportion, as the concentration is the number of moles present. So with more reacting particles there should be an increase is the number of successful collisions, hence more reactions, which means that the rate of reaction will increase. ...read more.

Conclusion

As it provided me with enough data to draw a strong and conclusive conclusion. After considering the experimental procedure carefully, I believe that it is strong enough for me to be able to discount the anomalies, and still be sufficiently strong enough for me to support my conclusion. This is because looking at the graph showing rate of reaction against concentration, even if I removed the three points I could still draw a similar graph, maybe not as accurate, but still accurate enough for me to prove my conclusion. To improve my experiment I suggest the following further work, I suggest that even more repeats should be carried out and hence more accurate results can be obtained. I also suggest that more concentrations should be used as this would allow us to obtain even more data points and plot even better lines of best fit. I also believe if the digital meters were available that we only measured the first 30 seconds but every second or two seconds which would have meant that the anomalies later on in the experiment would be discounted. Also with more data points a more accurate line of best fit can be drawn. Also I believe that the method of using a gas syringe to collect the gas given off could be used as it would allow us to measure the gas given off and relate that data to the mass lost data by means of several simple calculations. (moles and gases). Also it could be argued that as my repeats for the experiment we carried out at different times of day and different days, it would have allowed for external influences to influence the final result, these external influences, could be different batch of marble chips, different temperature of acid and different equipment, with different collaborations, meaning ever so slightly different readings. Also as we carried out repeats on different days it would have allowed us to ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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