• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6

# An Investigation to discover whether the string length of a pendulum affects the pendulum in any way.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Andrew Lyons4th December 01

An Investigation to discover whether the string length of a pendulum affects the pendulum in any way.

Introduction

A pendulum is a device made up of an object suspended from a fixed point that swings back and forth under the influence of gravity.  Pendulums are used in several kinds of mechanical devices; for example, certain types of clocks use pendulums.

The most basic type of pendulum is the simple pendulum.  In a simple pendulum, which swings back and forth in a single direction, all the mass of the device can be entirely in the suspended object.  The motion of pendulums, such as those in clocks, closely approximates the motion of a simple pendulum.  A spherical pendulum is not confined to a single direction, and as a result its motion can be much more complicated than the motion of a simple pendulum.

The principle of the pendulum was discovered by Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo, who established that the period for the back-and-forth swing of a pendulum, of a given length, remains the same, no matter how large its arc, or amplitude.  (If the amplitude is too large, however, the period of the pendulum is dependent on the amplitude.)

Middle

10)        At each length I will repeat the steps 4 – 7.

11)        I will work out the averages and record them, I will also work out what the correct answer would have been using this formula:  T=2π√(L /G)

12)        I will put the equipment away.

The Formula

The formula   T=2π √(L /G)   is used to find out what the time to complete the swing should have been if the experiment was flawless.  T is the time it takes to complete the swing, L is the length of the string at the time, and G is gravity, which is 9.87m/s².

To make this investigation safe, I will put some weight on the base of the clamp stand.  I will do this in case the table is knocked and the stand falls over.  The weight should hopefully stop this happening.  I will also make sure no one is standing near by, so that the pendulum does not hit him or her when it is swinging.

Results Table

The degrees change ½ way through the experiment because of a mistake on my part.  When drawing the 20-degree angle on a sheet, I accidentally drew it at 30 degrees.

Conclusion

To improve my experiment, I could have used a different timing method.  Timing by hand is all right, however it is not completely accurate.  To improve it I could use a clock, which begins timing at the moment that the pendulum is released.  This way, my results will be more accurate.  I could also use a type of string, which has less friction on the pivot.  The friction on the pivot may be slowing the pendulum down faster, and may account for some inaccurate results.  Another way would be to do the experiment in a vacuum.  This would be difficult to do, however there would not be any air resistance on the pendulum, and it would, once again, stop it from slowing down as fast and I would get more accurate results.

As an extension for this investigation, I could see what effect different types of string will have on the pendulum swing.  I believe that it will make a difference as some strings, such as fishing wire, have less air resistance and will create less friction in the pivot than the string that I used for this investigation.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

1. ## Investigating how the Length of a Pendulum affects its Period

3 star(s)

This is because over one period the inaccuracies of my reflexes would be a larger percentage of the overall time. Whilst over 10 periods the inaccuracies would be spread across 10 swings and thus the percentage would be lower. Therefore I shall time the swing of 10 periods meaning that there is less chance of discrepancies.

2. ## length of a simple pendulum affects the time

4 star(s)

This means there is a resultant force on the bob to the right. If the bob is moving to the right the force makes it accelerate and the speed increases as it moves towards the centre. If the bob is moving to the left the force decelerates it and it slows down.

1. ## Period of Oscillation of a Simple Pendulum

This is enough conclusive evidence to say that when not in a vacuum, 40� is the approximate maximum for the results not to be influenced by air resistance. This is experiment would have been best performed where there is no air - a vacuum.

2. ## FACTORS AFECTING SIMPLE PENDULUM`S PERIOD

which again means that even in water the square of the period is proportional to the length of the thread but if we look at the graph the line drawn through the theoretical values(Galileo's formula) is steeper than the line for the experimental value and hence what we can conclude

1. ## Practical Investigation Into Viscosity

Mass*& Surface area/size Gravity accelerates at 9.81 ms-1 independent of mass. Hence increasing the mass will not affect the experiment of surface area. Thus using an object of various sizes it would be possible to investigate the proportionately of size on the descent of the object.

2. ## Squash Ball and Temperature Investigation

Towards the very end of the graph (after the 850C point) the atoms of the ball are rapidly melting resulting in an almost straight line on the graph. Because of the melting of atoms in the ball, the height of the bounce back is affected as when the ball is

1. ## The determination of the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the earth, ...

This would reduce the risk of human error in counting. Errors and Actions taken to minimise them There was one particular problem that I came across when trying out my intended method in my preliminary experiment. This would cause an error in the results.

2. ## Determining the acceleration due to gravity by using simple pendulum.

(m) 20 Swings Average (s) 1 Swing (T) (s) T2 (s2) 0.20 17.80 0.89 0.79 0.30 21.90 1.10 1.20 0.40 25.20 1.26 1.59 0.50 28.35 1.42 2.01 0.60 30.90 1.55 2.39 0.70 33.50 1.68 2.81 0.80 35.85 1.79 3.21 0.90 37.80 1.89 3.57 1.00 39.90 2.00 3.98 GRAPH OF LENGTH AGAINTS T2 As can be seen the points plot into a straight line.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to