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An Investigation to Explore Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

GCSE Chemistry Coursework An Investigation to Explore Rates of Reaction Daisy Roberts Background information: The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. If the reactants take only a short time to change into the products, that reaction is a fast reaction and the speed or the rate of the reaction is high. If a reaction takes a long time to changing the reactants into the products, it is a slow reaction and the speed or rate of that reaction is slow. The minimum energy needed for a reaction to occur is called the activation energy. The kinetic theory: The kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of small particles that are constantly in motion. The higher the temperature the faster they move. In a solid, the particles are closer together and attract one and other strongly. In a liquid the particles are further apart with weaker forces of attraction, and in gases there is almost no force of attraction between particles. Each of these states have different factors that would increase a reaction. The collision theory: The collision theory states that particles have to collide hard enough with each other in order to react. ...read more.

Middle

Time with a stopwatch how long it takes for the cross to be obscured by the products of the reaction. Record your results and repeat 4 times to gain an average. Repeat this experiment for 6 temperatures between 25?c and 50?c. Tabulate your results. Make sure that the sodium Thiosulphate and the hydrochloric acid are always measured in separate measuring cylinders to avoid the reaction occurring before heating. Wash out the beaker after each experiment to keep the experiment fair. Risk assessment: To sustain safety you must make sure safety goggles are worn at all times and hair is tied back. Always keep the gangways clear, stay standing up during the experiment. Turn the Bunsen onto the safety orange flame when it is not in use, and when packing away, be aware that objects may be hot such as the tripod, gauze and Bunsen burner. Leave these to cool before moving them. The products that are being used can be hazardous: hydrochloric acid (Hazcard 49) is corrosive, causes severe burns and irritation to the respiratory system. It is toxic by inhalation. Sodium Thiosuphate (Hazcard 93) has minimal hazards, but would be harmful if ingested in quantity. These precautions must be taken for personal safety, for the safety of others and to make sure the experiment is not disturbed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Digital appliances would give better measurements than measuring cylinders, but this would mean weighing the liquids rather than using the volumes as measurements. More attempts would of course give a better average, which would also eliminate anomalous results as these could be spotted as incorrect as they would not fit in with the other results. Is the evidence enough to support a conclusion? For this experiment it is enough to support a conclusion, but the evidence is not enough to explain all reaction rates as I have only investigated temperature. However, conclusions can be drawn for the range I have used (25?c - 50?c). The range could have been bigger as to provide a better-curved trend in the graph. From the range I have used I can predict a continuation of the curved correlation, with the line reaching '0' on the time axis when the reaction touches and then falls below the activation energy. I would predict that the speed of reaction would continue to a point, but will not continue infinitely as it would become a limiting factor. Further investigations: Obvious investigations to follow this would be to look into the other factors affecting a reaction such as concentration, surface area, pressure, and the addition of a catalyst, and then to move onto how if all put together, the most productive reaction could be made. ...read more.

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