• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An Investigation to Explore Rates of Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE Chemistry Coursework An Investigation to Explore Rates of Reaction Daisy Roberts Background information: The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. If the reactants take only a short time to change into the products, that reaction is a fast reaction and the speed or the rate of the reaction is high. If a reaction takes a long time to changing the reactants into the products, it is a slow reaction and the speed or rate of that reaction is slow. The minimum energy needed for a reaction to occur is called the activation energy. The kinetic theory: The kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of small particles that are constantly in motion. The higher the temperature the faster they move. In a solid, the particles are closer together and attract one and other strongly. In a liquid the particles are further apart with weaker forces of attraction, and in gases there is almost no force of attraction between particles. Each of these states have different factors that would increase a reaction. The collision theory: The collision theory states that particles have to collide hard enough with each other in order to react. ...read more.

Middle

Time with a stopwatch how long it takes for the cross to be obscured by the products of the reaction. Record your results and repeat 4 times to gain an average. Repeat this experiment for 6 temperatures between 25?c and 50?c. Tabulate your results. Make sure that the sodium Thiosulphate and the hydrochloric acid are always measured in separate measuring cylinders to avoid the reaction occurring before heating. Wash out the beaker after each experiment to keep the experiment fair. Risk assessment: To sustain safety you must make sure safety goggles are worn at all times and hair is tied back. Always keep the gangways clear, stay standing up during the experiment. Turn the Bunsen onto the safety orange flame when it is not in use, and when packing away, be aware that objects may be hot such as the tripod, gauze and Bunsen burner. Leave these to cool before moving them. The products that are being used can be hazardous: hydrochloric acid (Hazcard 49) is corrosive, causes severe burns and irritation to the respiratory system. It is toxic by inhalation. Sodium Thiosuphate (Hazcard 93) has minimal hazards, but would be harmful if ingested in quantity. These precautions must be taken for personal safety, for the safety of others and to make sure the experiment is not disturbed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Digital appliances would give better measurements than measuring cylinders, but this would mean weighing the liquids rather than using the volumes as measurements. More attempts would of course give a better average, which would also eliminate anomalous results as these could be spotted as incorrect as they would not fit in with the other results. Is the evidence enough to support a conclusion? For this experiment it is enough to support a conclusion, but the evidence is not enough to explain all reaction rates as I have only investigated temperature. However, conclusions can be drawn for the range I have used (25?c - 50?c). The range could have been bigger as to provide a better-curved trend in the graph. From the range I have used I can predict a continuation of the curved correlation, with the line reaching '0' on the time axis when the reaction touches and then falls below the activation energy. I would predict that the speed of reaction would continue to a point, but will not continue infinitely as it would become a limiting factor. Further investigations: Obvious investigations to follow this would be to look into the other factors affecting a reaction such as concentration, surface area, pressure, and the addition of a catalyst, and then to move onto how if all put together, the most productive reaction could be made. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Understand factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions - temperature, concentration of reacting ...

    The contents of these fuels are carbon compounds which combine with oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water vapor. If these gases are confined, an explosion will occur because the gases take up much more volume than the solid fuel.

  2. Investigation of some of the factors affecting rates of reaction.

    temperature is increased, then both the frequency and the energy, or force, of the collisions will increase. Temperature increase means an increase in heat energy has occurred and this will make the particles move faster, so making them more likely to collide.

  1. Investigating Rates of Reactions

    Time (secs) 0.8M 0.9M 1.0M 1.1M 1.2M 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2.7 2.7 4.5 5.7 6.7 10 5 5 9 11.3 13.3 15 7.3 8.3 13.5 17.3 19.3 20 9.7 10.7 18 22.7 24.3 25 13.3 13 21.5 26.7 28.3 30 16 15 25 29.7 32 35

  2. The Kinetic Theory of Matter

    Therefore a higher proportion of the collisions are effective. Catalysts can also be used to slow down reactions. * Measure 100 ml of hydrochloric acid into a conical flask. * Half fill the container with water. * Fill the measuring cylinder with water and turn it up-side down in the container without letting any gas into the measuring cylinder.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work